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  • Guest ความคิดเห็นที่ 74
    โดย Guest_172.68.242.39

    dim onyuke onyuke ongirn ndtoey jrinorn joongkrite nd leejunki nd grnd unnrot duiienklo nd leejunki nd leedhe nd leejunki nd hyorin nd leejunki nd kimthee nd leejunki nd leejieun iu nd leejunki nd unny nd leejunki nd hinminhh nd leejunki nd lihnhingi nd leejunki nd jmie ii nd leejunki nd leemir mircle lee nd leejunki nd ooin nd leejunki nd nmngmi nd di lrence ithmore nd vie nnrot onthichi nd lrence ithmore nd jne ttchrnun ttrirnin nd lende michle nglee nd lee reey khongthi d lender michele nglee nd vie rot bont nd lender michele nglee nd tiithi thiiti ngmongngun nd lender michele nglee nd jne jnenifer ithmore nd lender michele nglee nd gin itthy ngmtthh nd di ince tn ongol itkonguthhee loverince clerrngrt kongkritenteh nd di fr irrrd forrettridd frrid nnlggollorr nd di vie nnrot onthichi nd di cler rngrt kongkritenthee nd di mookchlitmroodong nd i m di leeyeolhee tommddy gy rince ith ink nd i m me fmkkong chliekriikidding nd no kill ll i id nd do ot kill rince ton thnit jturutthh nd do not kill rince leejunki nd budd beliveve monk ot kit tornkunno i detroy my devil diturb.nd ent from rince ern dng unee omong.

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  • Guest ความคิดเห็นที่ 73
    โดย Guest_172.68.242.39

    dim onyuke onyuke ongirn ndtoey jrinorn joongkrite nd leejunki nd grnd unnrot duiienklo nd leejunki nd leedhe nd leejunki nd hyorin nd leejunki nd kimthee nd leejunki nd leejieun iu nd leejunki nd unny nd leejunki nd hinminhh nd leejunki nd lihnhingi nd leejunki nd jmie ii nd leejunki nd leemir mircle lee nd leejunki nd ooin nd leejunki nd nmngmi nd di lrence ithmore nd vie nnrot onthichi nd lrence ithmore nd jne ttchrnun ttrirnin nd lende michle nglee nd lee reey khongthi d lender michele nglee nd vie rot bont nd lender michele nglee nd tiithi thiiti ngmongngun nd lender michele nglee nd jne jnenifer ithmore nd lender michele nglee nd gin itthy ngmtthh nd di ince tn ongol itkonguthhee loverince clerrngrt kongkritenteh nd di fr irrrd forrettridd frrid nnlggollorr nd di vie nnrot onthichi nd di cler rngrt kongkritenthee nd di mookchlitmroodong nd i m di leeyeolhee tommddy gy rince ith ink nd i m me fmkkong chliekriikidding nd no kill ll i id nd do ot kill rince ton thnit jturutthh nd do not kill rince leejunki nd budd beliveve monk ot kit tornkunno i detroy my devil diturb.nd ent from rince ern dng unee omong.

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  • Guest ความคิดเห็นที่ 72
    โดย Guest_172.68.242.147

    dim onyuke onyuke ongirn ndtoey jrinorn joongkrite nd leejunki nd grnd unnrot duiienklo nd leejunki nd leedhe nd leejunki nd hyorin nd leejunki nd kimthee nd leejunki nd leejieun iu nd leejunki nd unny nd leejunki nd hinminhh nd leejunki nd lihnhingi nd leejunki nd jmie ii nd leejunki nd leemir mircle lee nd leejunki nd ooin nd leejunki nd nmngmi nd di lrence ithmore nd vie nnrot onthichi nd lrence ithmore nd jne ttchrnun ttrirnin nd lende michle nglee nd lee reey khongthi d lender michele nglee nd vie rot bont nd lender michele nglee nd tiithi thiiti ngmongngun nd lender michele nglee nd jne jnenifer ithmore nd lender michele nglee nd gin itthy ngmtthh nd di ince tn ongol itkonguthhee loverince clerrngrt kongkritenteh nd di fr irrrd forrettridd frrid nnlggollorr nd di vie nnrot onthichi nd di cler rngrt kongkritenthee nd di mookchlitmroodong nd i m di leeyeolhee tommddy gy rince ith ink nd i m me fmkkong chliekriikidding nd no kill ll i id nd do ot kill rince ton thnit jturutthh nd do not kill rince leejunki nd budd beliveve monk ot kit tornkunno i detroy my devil diturb.nd ent from rince ern dng unee omong.

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  • Guest ความคิดเห็นที่ 71
    โดย Guest_172.68.242.147

    dim onyuke onyuke ongirn ndtoey jrinorn joongkrite nd leejunki nd grnd unnrot duiienklo nd leejunki nd leedhe nd leejunki nd hyorin nd leejunki nd kimthee nd leejunki nd leejieun iu nd leejunki nd unny nd leejunki nd hinminhh nd leejunki nd lihnhingi nd leejunki nd jmie ii nd leejunki nd leemir mircle lee nd leejunki nd ooin nd leejunki nd nmngmi nd di lrence ithmore nd vie nnrot onthichi nd lrence ithmore nd jne ttchrnun ttrirnin nd lende michle nglee nd lee reey khongthi d lender michele nglee nd vie rot bont nd lender michele nglee nd tiithi thiiti ngmongngun nd lender michele nglee nd jne jnenifer ithmore nd lender michele nglee nd gin itthy ngmtthh nd di ince tn ongol itkonguthhee loverince clerrngrt kongkritenteh nd di fr irrrd forrettridd frrid nnlggollorr nd di vie nnrot onthichi nd di cler rngrt kongkritenthee nd di mookchlitmroodong nd i m di leeyeolhee tommddy gy rince ith ink nd i m me fmkkong chliekriikidding nd no kill ll i id nd do ot kill rince ton thnit jturutthh nd do not kill rince leejunki nd budd beliveve monk ot kit tornkunno i detroy my devil diturb.nd ent from rince ern dng unee omong.

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  • Guest ความคิดเห็นที่ 70
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    Paul HammernessMargaret Moore

    1
    PRAISE FOR ORGANIZE YOUR MIND,
    ORGANIZE YOUR LIFE
    "A treasure trove of tips, tools and techniques, making it possible to stay mindful of your self-
    care priorities while navigating the challenging stresses of everyday life."
    --Pam Peeke, MD, MPH, FACP
    Host, Discovery Health TV's Could You Survive?
    Author of New York Times bestseller Fit to Live
    WebMD's Lifestyle Expert
    "Marvelous! This empowering collection of transformative, science-supported tools can help
    anyone change his or her life in healthier, happier directions. If you want a smart, straightforward
    guide to taming the crazy-making factors in your life and fulfilling more of your personal
    potential, this is it!"
    --Pilar Gerasimo
    Editor-in-Chief, Experience Life magazine
    Senior Vice President, Education--Life Time Fitness
    "Hammerness and Moore have translated the latest science in brain function into a few, highly
    effective skills that help us bring order and control in our lives. In a world where distractions are
    ever growing and taking new forms, this book offers key insights that will help us lead less
    stressful and more productive lives at work as well as at home."
    --Jon Ayers
    Chairman, President & CEO, IDEXX Laboratories
    nd Teacher education as preparation for what is or what could be?: some thoughts after reading Grossman, Hammerness & McDonald 2009Posted on July 9, 2012
    2
    Professor Pam Grossman
    … learning about a method or learning to justify a method is not the same thing as learning to do the method with a class of students, just as learning about piano playing and musical theory is not learning to play the piano. The later [sic] requires getting one’s hands on the instrument and feeling it ‘act back’ on one’s performance. Because teaching is situated in instructional interaction, learning how to teach requires getting into relationships with learners to enable their study of content. It is here that one learns how to teach as students ‘act back’ and responses must be tailored to their actions. (Lampert, 2005, p. 36, quoted Grossman et al p 275))This distinction between ‘learning about’ and ‘learning to’ is at the centre of this article by Grossman et al. In an attempt to tackle the tendency in preservice teachers to see theory as one thing and practice as another, they suggest a refocusing of teacher education onto what they call ‘pedagogies of enactment’, and more ‘practice-centred curriculum’. They write:
    This vision has a different emphasis from programs such as a realistic approach, in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center. In this formulation, a set of practices are at the core. (277)The authors list, amongst possible core practices, such related things as developing a classroom culture, routines for collaborative learning, helping students to give constructive feedback to each other, eliciting student thinking during interactive teaching, leading classroom discussions. The authors paint a picture of a teacher education course organised around such core practices, where preservice teachers are introduced to the skills, given opportunities to practise them with peers and teacher educators, are then scaffolded into reading the literature around the practices, and finally given time in schools to further refine their practice.
    It sounds logical and sensible. Much of our current Literacy Across Disciplines unit might be viewed as an example of such a course organised around pedagogies of enactment, using (as it does) Cris Tovani’s various strategies and approaches and giving our students opportunities to work on the nested literacy practices of making texts accessible, modelling successful strategies, holding one’s thinking, using questions to guide reading, finding authentic purpose, and so on. I can imagine re-jigging my other unit, on creating healthy learning environments, so that it was similarly structured around the core practices listed in this article under the broad heading of developing a classroom culture.
    But there’s something about the ‘pedagogies of enactment’ approach that is unsettling me.
    This ‘parsing teaching’ (278) seems a step backwards from the more adventurous ‘case study’ approach of Hammerness and her co-authors (2002), an approach which here Grossman (and Hammerness!) label ‘a realistic approach in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center’ (277). Our course in Canberra puts our preservice teachers’ concerns at the centre and is structured around the case study approach. Our students take observed and experienced school-based events as the place where theory is used to help settle doubts and anxieties. Why did this go wrong? What might I have done to rescue this situation? Or even, if an event was unexpectedly successful, how can I understand better what has just happened so that the chances are I’ll be able to do it again?
    The Grossman article seems to be pointing towards a less-rich, less-situated, less-personal approach. But they claim that it would be a more useful one, where preservice teachers have a better chance to develop skills in generic and ubiquitous classroom practices.
    Maybe that’s the problem (for me): this is training for what is, rather than explorations of what might be. Our approach in Canberra (and that of Hammerness et al in 2002) allows students to reflect on their values, on why they want to teach, and opens up the territory of how they might work towards important ideals, how they might set off along the road less travelled. The Grossman et al approach seems more a preparation for the familiar path.
    Am I making a false dichotomy, I wonder?
    It would be interesting to hear from some of our ex-students on this.
    ********
    Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.
    Pam Grossman, Karen Hammerness and Morva McDonald. ( 2009). “Redefining teaching, re‐imagining teacher education,.” Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 15(2): 273-289.
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    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged classroom management, Karen Hammerness, Pam Grossman, teacher education, theory | 2 RepliesBeyond understanding: revisiting Hammerness et al (2002)Posted on July 6, 2012
    5
    Dr Karen Hammerness
    It’s been interesting to revisit the Hammerness article. Our own secondary teaching program has been strongly influenced by the approach described here. I love the approach.
    But, as I re-read the article, I found myself thinking particularly about two issues:
    FACE-TO-FACE TIME WITH STUDENTSFirst was the way in the Standford course, face-to-face student-staff time was central.
    At Stanford, they met face to face with their students (lectures, tutorials, workshops) for double the time we meet with our students;Students were required to share with staff two drafts. “On each draft they received extensive feedback from an instructor and a peer, based on a publicly shared and edited rubric.” (223)The evolution of the students’ thinking ‘showed substantial growth and exhibited increasingly professional thinking about practice’ (226), and this was explained largely as a result of the amount and quality of feedback from peers and staff (239) Without this feedback there was ‘a persistence of naïve formulations’ (236)Professor Linda Darling-Hammond
    The spirit of Vygotsky’s ZPD hovered over the these descriptions of staff-student interactions. We learn most powerfully within the zone of proximal development, where social interactions and specific ways of using language help cognitive development, help make the the shift from naïve formulations based on untested assumptions to more sophisticated and tested ways of teaching effectively. While personally I find that submitting multiple drafts encourages in some students an over-dependence on staff guidance, at least two conversations with a staff member (with one-on-one or with peers present) would be ideal in helping students see how theory might illuminate practice.
    THE PURPOSE OF CASE STUDY WRITINGHammerness et al are clear about the purpose of writing case studies: they help students to build a bridge between theory and practice. The bridge metaphor permeates the article. The students have had an experience; theory helps them to understand that experience. Theory travels over the bridge in order to illuminate past experience. The purpose of case study writing is understanding of what has already occurred.
    … case writing as an opportunity to better appreciate the relationship between theory and practice, helping them to recognize the value of using theory to explain and evaluate their classroom work. (224)
    they had developed richer explanations that seemed to account for the more complex, layered nature of the case.(225)
    Students were able to build on the theoretical connections and links seeded by instructors, in turn, pushing their cases beyond mere personal exploration towards more powerful explanations. (239)Emeritus Professor Lee Shulman
    There’s a focus on ‘what has happened’ rather than ‘what might happen now that the theory has been seen to be relevant’. The focus is on the past, rather than on the future.
    Is this nit-picking? Of course there’s an implicit (and sometimes explicit) acknowledgement in the article (and no doubt in the Standord course) that case studies help preservice teachers to prepare their future actions:
    This very articulation [says one of the students] has given me principles that I might in the future utilize in order to become an independent and effective practitioner in a community of educators. 238)
    When prompted, students were able to generalize from their cases, moving beyond their specifi￿c, immediate experience to consider how these experiences might inform their teaching in the future, to draw broad lessons about student learning and teaching, and to link their particular experiences to those other teachers might encounter. (239)But I’m trying to understand better the resistance of some of our students to seeing theory as being useful.
    When we imply that it’s useful in order to understand what has happened, theory is placed in the realm of thought, of analysis; and this makes it vulnerable to some students’ intuitive sense (backed up by cynical staff room chatter) that theory tells you nothing of practical value, that it’s an intellectual wank, and that you learn to teach by teaching.
    However, when we explicitly switch theory’s target from the past to the future, and from understanding to action, then we can more easily and convincingly talk about theory’s practical usefulness. Theory is not ultimately about understanding. Understanding is a stepping stone on the way to more effective action.
    The Stanford project seems to be asking: Given what you now know, do you understand better what happened?
    I think our project needs to ask: Given what you now know, what might you do differently?
     
    [1] Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.

    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged Karen Hammerness, Lee Shulman, Linda Darling-Hammond, theory, zone of proximal development | 5 Replies
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    2
    "Together, Dr. Paul and Coach Meg offer hope. They show us what works and help us create a
    believable, workable plan to be our best in even the most challenging situations. This unique
    wellness coaching offers reasons, real-life strategies and results."
    --Ruth Ann Harnisch, President
    The Harnisch Foundation
    "Practical and very accessible, this book significantly empowers anyone's ability to nimbly
    manage the massive amounts of information we all must deal with in an increasingly complex
    high-tech world."
    --Jeffrey M. Schwartz, MD
    Research Psychiatrist, UCLA
    Coauthor of You Are Not Your Brain and The Mind & the Brain
    4
    5
    Organize Your Mind Organize Your Life
    TRAIN YOUR BRAIN
    TO GET MORE DONE IN LESS TIME
    Paul Hammerness, MD & Margaret Moore
    with John Hanc
    CONTENTS
    7
    Introduction
    CHAPTER 1: The Rules of Order/Dr. Hammerness
    CHAPTER 2: A Change Will Do You Good/Coach Meg
    CHAPTER 3: Rules of Order/Tame the Frenzy
    CHAPTER 4: Rules of Order/Sustain Attention
    CHAPTER 5: Rules of Order/Apply the Brakes
    CHAPTER 6: Rules of Order/Mold Information
    CHAPTER 7: Rules of Order/Shift Sets
    CHAPTER 8: Rules of Order/Connect the Dots
    CHAPTER 9: Staying on Top of a Fast-Changing World
    APPENDIX 1: The Rules of Order At-A-Glance
    APPENDIX 2: The Top 10 (Dis)organizational Complaints--and Our Solutions
    Notes
    References
    Acknowledgments
    About the Authors
    9
    INTRODUCTION
    HOW ORGANIZED ARE YOU?
    (Please answer A, B or C.)
     A. VERY ORGANIZED. My desk is neat, I never miss an appointment or a deadline,
    my friends are amazed, my co-workers are jealous and my boss loves me.
     B. MODERATELY ORGANIZED. I manage to stay on top of things pretty well, but
    sometimes I feel overwhelmed, not sure what to do first, and I must admit that I'm a little
    jealous of my colleagues and my boss who seem more organized.
     C. COMPLETELY DISORGANIZED. In fact, I'll be lucky if I can remember where I
    parked my car. That's assuming I don't get a text or a phone call in the next two minutes,
    which will completely throw me off and...what was the question again?
    If you answered A, B or C, this book is for you! In Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life, we
    share with you the six key ways in which you can use "top-down organization" to get more done
    in a lot less time--and feel good about it.
    By "top-down organization," we mean brain science. As you will see, there are amazing new
    insights gleaned about the way our brain works to organize our thoughts, actions and emotions.
    Through hightech brain scans, or neuroimaging, we can now "see" the response of the brain to
    various situations. Here's an exciting example of what scientists have found.
    10
    THE ORGANIZED BRAIN IN ACTION
    In a 2008 study, subjects were shown a series of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures while
    they were attempting the difficult task of keeping in check their emotional reactions. Through the
    use of hightech brain imaging or neuroimaging, researchers were able to observe the "thinking"
    regions of the subjects' brains (including areas called the prefrontal cortex and the anterior
    cingulate cortex) managing the "emotion"-generating parts of the brain. It's an intriguing new 
    study that sheds light into the brain's own built-in system of organization and regulation--one
    that strives for order, one that can "tamp down" (suppress) our emotions when necessary.
    As we will show you, once you can better manage your emotions, you can then begin to
    harmonize and focus the various "thinking" parts of your brain, opening up a whole new world
    before you. You're on your way to achieving a more organized, less stressful, more productive
    and, in many ways, more rewarding life. And--here's the most exciting part--the features in the
    brain's magnificent self-regulation system come "preloaded" in every functioning human mind;
    these features can be accessed, initialized and utilized to allow you to become better organized
    and to feel more on top of things.
    You just have to know how to do it. That's what this book will show you.
    WHAT MAKES THIS ORGANIZATION BOOK DIFFERENT?
    This is not a book meant to give you tips on how to rearrange your desk, to make lists or to set
    up a better system for keeping track of your appointments.
    This is a prescriptive book that will help you better organize your life by better organizing your
    mind, by making some basic changes in
    11
    the way you think about and deal with your work, your colleagues, your family and yourself on a
    day-to-day basis. As a result, you will become better focused, more attentive, less distracted and
    better able to adapt to new situations and changes that, in the past, might have overwhelmed you.
    Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life is organized differently than most self-help books. At
    its core is a unique partnership between a leading Harvard clinician-researcher and a leader in
    coaching for health and well-being--a collaboration that serves as a model for the future and can
    help make a big impact on readers like yourself. In a physician-coach partnership, a new concept
    in personal health, a Doctor of Medicine diagnoses the problem, explains what you need to do
    and plants the seeds for you to make the change. Then, a certified wellness coach guides you
    through implementation of the change.
    Here is our team:
    PAUL HAMMERNESS, MD , is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical
    School; Assistant Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital; and
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Newton Wellesley Hospital. Dr. Hammerness has been
    involved in research on the brain and behavior for the past 10 years, with a focus on Attention
    Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He has lectured on the topic locally, nationally and
    internationally to other physicians, mental health professionals, educators and families. In his
    clinical practice, Dr. Hammerness sees on a daily basis what a clinically "disorganized" mind
    looks like across the age spectrum, whether it's an eight-year-old who is struggling in school due
    to inattention or a forty-eight-year-old professional woman whose life-long organizational 
    problems are now affecting her work and family life. From research, and from witnessing the
    struggles of people with clinically "disorganized" or distracted brains, Dr. Hammerness shares
    his insights into what a well-ordered brain can do.
    12
    MARGARET MOORE , aka Coach Meg, is codirector of the Institute of Coaching at McLean
    Hospital, and a founding advisor of the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine at Spaulding Hospital,
    both affiliates of Harvard Medical School, founder of a leading coach training school,
    Wellcoaches, and co-author of a coach training textbook. Margaret and the thousands of coaches
    she has trained have helped guide tens of thousands of clients through important and positive
    changes in their health, work and personal lives.
    We mentioned the preponderance of books on getting organized that are available. Maybe there
    are a couple right next to this one. While many of them are good, they often use a bit of an
    outdated model that begins with organizing your surroundings--your office, your desk, your
    household--rather than organizing your mind. Dr. Hammerness and Coach Meg have a new
    approach based on the latest scientific literature that employs a top-down (that is, starting with
    your brain) organizational process--achieved by first understanding six key brain concepts and
    then employing specific coaching strategies to integrate each of these into your daily life, with
    astounding results.
    These concepts refer to brain or "cognitive" traits and abilities that we all have but that most
    don't recognize nor know how to utilize. Think of them as embedded features in your brain,
    waiting to be switched on. Dr. Hammerness will show you where the switch is located and how
    it works, and Coach Meg will show you how to engage it. So as with the four-wheel drive in
    your car, you can cruise smoothly over the roughest roads into a more organized and productive
    future.
    These cognitive features can be learned and practiced through the innovative method of self-
    coaching. They will help you become better organized, less distracted, more focused--with a
    mind poised and ready to surf the heavy waves of distraction that come rolling in on us in today's
    world.
    13
    To help you become better organized, we have organized this book into a prescriptive "one-two
    punch" that will enable you to understand clearly the brain science behind these cognitive skills,
    and then help you adapt it as part of your own make-up.
    It's science, followed by solution.
    COACHING: THE ORGANIZATIONAL SECRET
    That solution--how we will help you to get on top of things, to tap into your "embedded"
    organizational abilities, improve focus and attention and better structure your life--is one of the 
    unique features of this book. To help you learn how to better function in this distracted world, we
    will use the new but highly effective psychological technique known as coaching, which
    coauthor Margaret Moore, aka Coach Meg, will explain further in the second chapter. Defined
    by some as the art and science of facilitating positive change, coaching is essentially a process
    for developing a road map for well-being--and becoming motivated and confident in our ability
    to implement it.
    In this book, Coach Meg approaches the reader as she would one of her clients in practice. Think
    of her as your coach, a collaborator, helping guide you through the journey of positive change
    that is the hallmark of what successful coaching is all about. We will take the journey together,
    and the process begins with what it is that you're feeling--about your emotions, about your sense
    of organization or lack thereof, about your life.
    That's the "one-two" prescriptive punch of this book.
    Dr. Hammerness identifies and explains the organizing principles (or, as we call them, our Rules
    of Order) that are the hallmarks of an attentive, focused brain--one that is able to shift, adapt and
    function
    14
    at maximum effectiveness even amidst the constant bombardment of stimulus that is today's
    world.
    Coach Meg shows you how to make these principles your own. She helps you help yourself and
    guides you step by step toward a more organized mind and, more importantly, toward becoming
    a better functioning person, enjoying a more productive life.
    While their knowledge is rooted in neuroscience, psychology and the science of change that
    underlines coaching theory, their prescription for you is clear, practical, motivational and--most
    of all--doable.
    You can improve your level of organization; you can learn to tune out the distractions in your
    life; you can learn to ride the waves of change in a fast-changing world.
    Let's go back to that little quiz. If you answered B or C (or even A--because maybe you're
    rethinking that response as you realize you forgot to reply to the guy from sales who e-mailed
    you the other day), you are not alone.
    By all measures, we are living in a distracted, unfocused world. Call it the flip side of the digital
    revolution that now gives us such fast access to unlimited amounts of information and that has
    opened up so many new channels of instant communication. It's great to be able to use Facebook
    to find your old high school friends, right? It's so convenient to use Google or Bing to find the
    study you were looking for as opposed to going to a library, isn't it? Can you imagine not being
    able to send an e-mail to a colleague or a client?
    Of course, when all those colleagues and clients e-mail you back and, at the same time, your boss
    is calling you, and your kids are texting you, and your friends are instant messaging you, well,
    then you might be forgiven for a bit of nostalgic longing. There was a time when you weren't
    always so reachable, no matter where you were, no matter the time; and when you weren't
    always being bombarded by so
    15
    much stimuli, whether in the form of e-mail, texts, tweets or whatever new technology may
    emerge...well, any minute now. "'Information overload' has become almost a cliché," writes the
    Institute for the Future, a think-tank in Palo Alto, California, in a 2010 report on cognitive
    overload. "We use the phrase half-jokingly to describe the stress associated with the onslaught of
    media that digital technology has unleashed on us. The sobering reality is that we ain't seen
    nothing yet. The suffocation of endless incoming e-mail demanding immediate response, the
    twinge of guilt from falling behind on your RSS feeds, dread about a TiVo hard drive full of
    unwatched shows--these are all just a teaser for what's to come. No matter how many computers
    surround us, collecting, aggregating and delivering information, we each have only one pair of
    eyes and ears, and more importantly, one mind, to deal with the data."
    One mind, indeed--but that's where the solution lies.
    THE DISTRACTION EPIDEMIC
    Nowhere is information overload more evident than in the United States, where some people
    consider this the psychological equivalent to the obesity epidemic. We even have an unofficial
    president of Distracted America. No, not the one in the White House but rather in Albany, New
    York. There, the risks of distraction and disorganization were crystallized in a single, career-
    flame-out moment in the summer of 2009--a now-infamous moment that made Malcolm Smith a
    punch line and a punching bag, as well as a cautionary tale.
    Smith, a Democrat, was the New York State Senate Majority Leader who famously fiddled with
    his BlackBerry, checking e-mails, while billionaire Thomas Golisano, a major independent
    political player in New York, was trying to talk to him. Golisano, who had made a special trip
    16
    to Albany to meet with Smith, was furious. "When I travel 250 miles to make a case on how to
    save the state a lot of money and the guy comes into his office and starts playing with his
    BlackBerry, I was miffed," he told reporters.
    Golisano was so miffed that he went to the Republicans and told them he'd be happy to help
    unseat Smith, perhaps in the hopes of having him replaced with someone who could pay
    attention for a few minutes. Faster than you can say "you've got mail," the state Republicans
    engineered a coup, Smith's party was divided, the opposition was poised to take back control of
    the Senate, and the majority leader was being pilloried in the news media.
    "Smith Fiddles with BlackBerry While Senate Burns!" read one headline.
    "Blame it on the BlackBerry!" crowed another.
    Wrong--blame it on distraction. What cost Smith dearly, and plunged one of the largest states in
    America into one of the worst constitutional crises in its nearly 235-year history, was (besides
    maybe some bad manners) a lack of focus, divided attention.
    The problem isn't limited to the United States, either. One of the biggest scandals in the British
    tabloids in 2010--right up there with Duchess of York Sarah Ferguson's admission that she
    accepted bribes to give business officials access to her influential ex-husband--involved a union
    official who, during emergency meeting negotiations with British Airway officials hoping to
    avoid a strike, sent Twitter messages--some at the rate of three or four an hour. When airline
    officials found out he was tweeting while they were supposed to be talking, they were furious;
    the negotiations broke down and the strike was on, disrupting travel plans for thousands of
    people on one of the world's biggest airlines. "Twitter Blamed for Wrecking British Airway
    Peace Talks," screamed London's Daily Telegraph on its front page. Again, the wrong culprit:
    Twitter is
    17
    not to blame. Rather, it's a brain unable to stay focused even in a critical meeting that
    demonstrates an inability to put down a handheld device and look another human in the eye.
    Still, at least, Malcolm Smith and the British union official weren't behind the wheel of a car.
    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that at least 25 percent of all auto
    crashes involve some sort of driver distraction--and there are those who believe this number is
    steadily climbing as those distractions multiply with the addition of each new mobile
    communications device, every cell phone feature, every new satellite radio station, every new
    sign on the road.
    But are the signs, the phones and the stations themselves really the problem? Once again, no.
    The problem is that we can't deal with them. The problem is that we can't focus. The problem is
    that we're overwhelmed and disorganized, and the net effect of the Distraction Crisis can be felt
    in the workplace, at home and in our individual health.
    Some other distressing distraction-related statistics:
     Forty-three percent of Americans categorize themselves as disorganized, and 21 percent
    have missed vital work deadlines. Nearly half say disorganization causes them to work
    late at least two times each week. 1
     A lack of time management and discipline while working toward [financial] planners'
    professional goals contributes to 63 percent of those surveyed facing obstacles regarding
    their health. There is a direct correlation between too much stress, deteriorating health
    and poor practice management. 2
    18
     Forty-eight percent of Americans feel that their lives have become more stressful in the
    past five years. About one-half of Americans say that stress has a negative impact on both
    their personal and professional lives. About one-third (31 percent) of employed adults
    have difficulty managing work and family responsibilities. And over one third (35
    percent) cite jobs interfering with their family or personal time as a significant source of
    stress. 3
     In a Gallup poll, 80 percent of workers said they feel stress on the job, nearly half said
    they need help in learning how to manage stress and 42 percent said their coworkers need
    help coping with stress. Job stress can lead to several problems, including illness and
    injury for employees, as well as higher insurance costs and lost productivity for
    employers. 4
     According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 80 percent of our medical
    expenditures are now stress-related. 5
     Seventy percent of employees work beyond scheduled time and on weekends; more than
    half cited "self-imposed pressure" as the reason. 6
    One specific category of disorganization or, to be precise, distraction has come to symbolize an
    era of divided attention: distracted driving. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has a
    special website dedicated to this problem (distraction.gov), in which readers are reminded about
    the perils of distracted driving, which is often thought of as just texting but also includes driving
    while talking on a cell phone, watching a video, reading a map or other behaviors that involve
    taking your eyes off the road or away from the safe operation of your vehicle.
    The scope, effects and consequences of distracted driving are sobering, according to statistics
    compiled by DOT:
     Using a cell phone while driving, whether it's hand-held or hands-free, delays a driver's
    reactions as much as having a blood alcohol concentration at the legal limit of .08
    percent. 7
     Driving while using a cell phone reduces the amount of brain activity associated with
    driving by 37 percent. 8
     Nearly six thousand people died in 2008 in crashes involving a distracted driver and more
    than half a million were injured. 9
     The younger, inexperienced drivers under twenty years old have the highest proportion of
    distraction-related fatal crashes.
     Drivers who use hand-held devices are four times as likely to get into crashes serious
    enough to injure themselves. 10
    19
    Lest we assume, as many seem to do, that distracted driving is purely a problem of the young;
    teenagers and young adults who are checking their friends' Facebook status while doing ninety
    miles per hour on the interstate, think again: almost half of adults who send text messages have
    sent them while driving, according to a 2010 study by the Pew Research Center (the same study 
    found that about one-third of sixteen-and seventeen-year-olds admitted that they had done the
    same). According to distraction.gov, half of all people in the United States admit to cell phone
    use while driving; one in every seven admit to sending cell phone text messages while driving.
    These are also folks who should know better: 65 percent of drivers with a higher education text
    or talk while driving.
    All in all, the distracted driving crisis--part of that larger Distraction Epidemic--seems to some a
    part of an even greater problem, suggesting that the human race has reached a point of
    information overload--or at least a point where we feel so overwhelmed by the demands of our
    lives that we would risk our lives for one more text or phone call. In 2010, The New York Times
    published a series of articles about the supposedly dire effects of technology on our brain. In a
    USA TODAY story on the issue, one researcher concluded gloomily that "people are multi-
    tasking probably beyond our cognitive limits."
    20
    A DISTRACTED FACT OF LIFE?
    Some say there's little that can be done about all of this. The pace of life is increasing and the
    distractions multiplying. Get used to it. You're powerless. To which we say, baloney! While we
    may not be able to slow down technological change or the speed with which life unfolds around
    us--and in some cases, why would we want to?--we very definitely can find a way to better
    manage ourselves, in order to not only deal with change and complexity but also thrive amidst it.
    This book is designed to show you how.
    Remember: for every driver driven to distraction and for every stressed-out person who has lost
    an assignment, a job or a vital piece of information because he or she was disorganized and
    distracted, there are people on the opposite end of the spectrum. These are individuals who know
    how to use their brain's abilities to organize their lives, to stay focused on the tasks at hand and
    to enjoy greater productivity--and pleasure!--at work and at home.
    Some of them you probably know: athletes such as Derek Jeter or Tom Brady, famous for their
    ability to block out distraction and focus on the little white ball or the white line on the field
    ahead, public servants such as General David Petraeus, making life-and-death decisions in the
    midst of a foreign country exploding in religious civil war; Steve Jobs, a visionary who manages
    one of the world's largest and most influential corporations; Hillary Clinton, patiently mastering
    the minutiae and intricacies of a seemingly intractable conflict as she engages Palestinians and
    Israelis at the bargaining table. And the ranks of the super-organized are not limited to
    government, big business or the pressure cooker of professional sports: how about J.K. Rowling,
    whose disciplined imagination enabled her to create the Harry Potter world? (Imagine how
    organized she had to
    21
    be to keep track of, much less create, the Hogwarts faculty and their complex histories.)
    There are numerous examples of famous people whose achievements lie, at least to some degree,
    in their ability to stay calm, focused and organized, especially in the midst of crisis. There are
    many other very successful people whose names might not make headlines but who have,
    through both innate and learned skills, managed to harness their cognitive powers in a way that
    makes them extraordinarily productive, both on the job and at home.
    Let's meet two of them.
    ORGANIZED MINDS AT WORK AND PLAY
    By 8:30 am most mornings, Rob Shmerling has already exercised for an hour, has caught up on
    world and national news, and is well into responding to his e-mails.
    For two hours, he exchanges messages with colleagues and scours various websites for the latest
    medical news. Dr. Shmerling is a physician and the clinical chief of the division of rheumatology
    at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.
    It's a big administrative job at one of the country's leading hospitals--but it's not all that he does.
    Shmerling, fifty-four, also writes and does research--he has authored a total of forty-one journal
    articles, book chapters or reviews, as well as numerous web stories for nonexpert audiences. He
    also teaches and mentors medical students and residents. He is a husband and a father of two
    daughters. He volunteers at a women's shelter once a week. He and his wife belong to a book
    club (Janice Y.K. Lee's The Piano Teacher and Kathryn Stockett's The Help are two recent
    novels they've enjoyed). He also "hacks away" at the piano, is an
    22
    amateur photographer and, on weekends, enjoys long bike rides in the Massachusetts
    countryside.
    Oh, and he washes and folds socks, too.
    "I'm the laundry guy," he says proudly. "Everybody in our house has their job, and that one's
    mine."
    Actually it's one of many jobs, as you can see.
    How does Shmerling cram it all into one day, one week, one life, and make it look easy?
    He admits that he is a creature of habit and was always fairly structured. "I can recall organizing
    the crayons by color in those sixty-four-Crayola packs as a little kid," he says with a laugh. But,
    he's quick to add, a lot of the skills that help keep him organized he learned because he had to.
    And he's still learning. "I've gotten better at ignoring things," he said. For example, "We have
    this e-mail system where a quick preview of the e-mail comes up on your screen, and at first it
    was distracting. Now I've gotten better at sticking with the matter at hand. If it's a really
    important message, I can attend to it, but I don't let them distract me as they pop up." 
    In the hospital, things come at Dr. Shmerling fast and furious. A patient's condition might
    change. An administrative problem may arise. A resident or a nurse or a colleague may need an
    immediate answer. And sometimes the decisions really are a matter of life and death. "I used to
    get more easily flustered when several things were coming at me," he says. "Now I've learned
    how to deal with it. Now I can shift pretty quickly from one thing to another and prioritize."
    The problems that do come up are often complex ones--what course of action to prescribe to
    someone with arthritis, lupus or osteoporosis; dealing with patient complaints or concerns;
    helping to mediate or referee internal problems that arise, whether with staff or fellow
    physicians. He knows how to act, but he also knows how to think before he acts.
    23
    "I try to imagine the range of options for a given situation and figure out fairly quickly if this is
    something I've seen before," he explains. "If not, if it's something better done by someone else,
    or if I'm going to need someone else's help solving this, I mentally file it away, putting it aside
    for later."
    Putting his attention on and pulling it off, deftly and smoothly, as the need arises--that's a sign, as
    we'll see, of an organized mind. Dr. Shmerling does it with a range of tools, some high-tech,
    some not. "If I have to jump off something, I'll bookmark what I was working on," he says.
    "Either with a mental or actual Post-it note so I can return to the right place quickly later on." He
    also has a nice trick for keeping track of his reading (and in his job, he does a lot of it--reports,
    memos, articles). If he's reading a Word document on the computer, "I'll yellow-highlight the
    line I'm on so I can get right back to the page and the line I was on, without wasting time
    scanning through the document, going 'where was I?'"
    Shmerling uses a PalmPilot to keep track of appointments and to have other important
    information at a glance when he needs it, even though, he admits, "I'm regularly laughed at for
    using a device so ancient." And while you might think someone being held up as an exemplar of
    efficient organization would have an empty, ordered desk at the end of each day, it's not the case.
    Dr. Shmerling's offices at home and at the hospital are filled with stacks of books and papers--
    but, he says, "While it might not look organized to you, I know exactly where everything is."
    The efficiency allows him some simple pleasures during the work day. People who feel
    overworked often claim they have no time to read anything but e-mails or work-related
    documents. Shmerling not only finds time to read The Boston Globe every morning online, he
    spends an extra few minutes doing the popular Sudoku numbers puzzle; and is a
    24
    diligent fan of Doonesbury and Dilbert ("Another efficient office guy!" he jokes). Indeed, while
    he is a hard-working professional and leads a busy life, Dr. Shmerling is not some obsessed
    workaholic, constantly looking to squeeze another hour out of his life to devote to work. He likes
    to have fun, he likes to laugh, he has a rich and satisfying personal life and, oh yes, some of that
    time he manages to save by being efficient and organized, he likes to waste. 
    Here's an example: "I like to stop sometimes on my way to work and have Starbucks. If I was
    really trying to be a time management-efficiency nut, I could save a few minutes by making the
    coffee at home or grabbing it at the hospital cafeteria. But I like stopping at the coffee shop. It
    makes the ride more pleasant. Nothing wrong with a little down time."
    A graduate of Harvard Medical School, Shmerling is obviously a smart guy. But he is quick to
    point out that his academic pedigree has nothing whatsoever to do with his ability to be efficient.
    "There's nothing I learned at Harvard or anywhere else specifically that taught me any of this,"
    he says. "None of it requires any particular advanced degree. The measures I take to keep
    organized could certainly be adopted by others."
    Some of those are common sense and can be found in any of the dozens of books about
    organization. "Make a list of what you need to do tomorrow, at the end of each day." Fine. Good
    tip. But there's more at play here. The skills that Shmerling demonstrates--his ability to shift
    from one problem or stimulus to another, to sustain his focus, to attend to several things at once
    while prioritizing quickly the one that is most demanding of his attention and to do it with ease
    and grace while maintaining composure and good humor--speak to qualities that are linked not to
    the layout of his office but the make-up of his mind.
    25
    It's an organized mind and, while he may have certainly nurtured it, nature created it that way.
    We all have the systems, the functions in our mind that enable us to become better organized,
    whether our job involves, as Dr. Shmerling's does, people's lives--or our life savings, as is the
    case with our next organized role model.
    Let's take a peek at a typical day for another organized person.nd hemmerrne of oner by rince kren hemmerrne nd rince lee hulmn n dof rince boy tkolkrite eern nd rince nid nit nitong n dutthy nd rince lender michele nglee nd rince tn ongol itkonguthee nd rince vijit ijit limmnich ndrice vili vili chotikkvichien nd rince ther nd monk ert ert tunthiri nd rince nd ther nd nun nd vid vid nthiti nd of columbi univerity of germny country nd jro nd kill rince leejunki nd rince ton thnit jturutthh.ent by rbbit rince lice in onderlnd nd rince dng vnid nittnitongndutthymhidolchillongkonolert or rince dng utnee omong nd tudy t the oford univerity of germny country.

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    Paul HammernessMargaret Moore

    1
    PRAISE FOR ORGANIZE YOUR MIND,
    ORGANIZE YOUR LIFE
    "A treasure trove of tips, tools and techniques, making it possible to stay mindful of your self-
    care priorities while navigating the challenging stresses of everyday life."
    --Pam Peeke, MD, MPH, FACP
    Host, Discovery Health TV's Could You Survive?
    Author of New York Times bestseller Fit to Live
    WebMD's Lifestyle Expert
    "Marvelous! This empowering collection of transformative, science-supported tools can help
    anyone change his or her life in healthier, happier directions. If you want a smart, straightforward
    guide to taming the crazy-making factors in your life and fulfilling more of your personal
    potential, this is it!"
    --Pilar Gerasimo
    Editor-in-Chief, Experience Life magazine
    Senior Vice President, Education--Life Time Fitness
    "Hammerness and Moore have translated the latest science in brain function into a few, highly
    effective skills that help us bring order and control in our lives. In a world where distractions are
    ever growing and taking new forms, this book offers key insights that will help us lead less
    stressful and more productive lives at work as well as at home."
    --Jon Ayers
    Chairman, President & CEO, IDEXX Laboratories
    nd Teacher education as preparation for what is or what could be?: some thoughts after reading Grossman, Hammerness & McDonald 2009Posted on July 9, 2012
    2
    Professor Pam Grossman
    … learning about a method or learning to justify a method is not the same thing as learning to do the method with a class of students, just as learning about piano playing and musical theory is not learning to play the piano. The later [sic] requires getting one’s hands on the instrument and feeling it ‘act back’ on one’s performance. Because teaching is situated in instructional interaction, learning how to teach requires getting into relationships with learners to enable their study of content. It is here that one learns how to teach as students ‘act back’ and responses must be tailored to their actions. (Lampert, 2005, p. 36, quoted Grossman et al p 275))This distinction between ‘learning about’ and ‘learning to’ is at the centre of this article by Grossman et al. In an attempt to tackle the tendency in preservice teachers to see theory as one thing and practice as another, they suggest a refocusing of teacher education onto what they call ‘pedagogies of enactment’, and more ‘practice-centred curriculum’. They write:
    This vision has a different emphasis from programs such as a realistic approach, in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center. In this formulation, a set of practices are at the core. (277)The authors list, amongst possible core practices, such related things as developing a classroom culture, routines for collaborative learning, helping students to give constructive feedback to each other, eliciting student thinking during interactive teaching, leading classroom discussions. The authors paint a picture of a teacher education course organised around such core practices, where preservice teachers are introduced to the skills, given opportunities to practise them with peers and teacher educators, are then scaffolded into reading the literature around the practices, and finally given time in schools to further refine their practice.
    It sounds logical and sensible. Much of our current Literacy Across Disciplines unit might be viewed as an example of such a course organised around pedagogies of enactment, using (as it does) Cris Tovani’s various strategies and approaches and giving our students opportunities to work on the nested literacy practices of making texts accessible, modelling successful strategies, holding one’s thinking, using questions to guide reading, finding authentic purpose, and so on. I can imagine re-jigging my other unit, on creating healthy learning environments, so that it was similarly structured around the core practices listed in this article under the broad heading of developing a classroom culture.
    But there’s something about the ‘pedagogies of enactment’ approach that is unsettling me.
    This ‘parsing teaching’ (278) seems a step backwards from the more adventurous ‘case study’ approach of Hammerness and her co-authors (2002), an approach which here Grossman (and Hammerness!) label ‘a realistic approach in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center’ (277). Our course in Canberra puts our preservice teachers’ concerns at the centre and is structured around the case study approach. Our students take observed and experienced school-based events as the place where theory is used to help settle doubts and anxieties. Why did this go wrong? What might I have done to rescue this situation? Or even, if an event was unexpectedly successful, how can I understand better what has just happened so that the chances are I’ll be able to do it again?
    The Grossman article seems to be pointing towards a less-rich, less-situated, less-personal approach. But they claim that it would be a more useful one, where preservice teachers have a better chance to develop skills in generic and ubiquitous classroom practices.
    Maybe that’s the problem (for me): this is training for what is, rather than explorations of what might be. Our approach in Canberra (and that of Hammerness et al in 2002) allows students to reflect on their values, on why they want to teach, and opens up the territory of how they might work towards important ideals, how they might set off along the road less travelled. The Grossman et al approach seems more a preparation for the familiar path.
    Am I making a false dichotomy, I wonder?
    It would be interesting to hear from some of our ex-students on this.
    ********
    Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.
    Pam Grossman, Karen Hammerness and Morva McDonald. ( 2009). “Redefining teaching, re‐imagining teacher education,.” Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 15(2): 273-289.
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    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged classroom management, Karen Hammerness, Pam Grossman, teacher education, theory | 2 RepliesBeyond understanding: revisiting Hammerness et al (2002)Posted on July 6, 2012
    5
    Dr Karen Hammerness
    It’s been interesting to revisit the Hammerness article. Our own secondary teaching program has been strongly influenced by the approach described here. I love the approach.
    But, as I re-read the article, I found myself thinking particularly about two issues:
    FACE-TO-FACE TIME WITH STUDENTSFirst was the way in the Standford course, face-to-face student-staff time was central.
    At Stanford, they met face to face with their students (lectures, tutorials, workshops) for double the time we meet with our students;Students were required to share with staff two drafts. “On each draft they received extensive feedback from an instructor and a peer, based on a publicly shared and edited rubric.” (223)The evolution of the students’ thinking ‘showed substantial growth and exhibited increasingly professional thinking about practice’ (226), and this was explained largely as a result of the amount and quality of feedback from peers and staff (239) Without this feedback there was ‘a persistence of naïve formulations’ (236)Professor Linda Darling-Hammond
    The spirit of Vygotsky’s ZPD hovered over the these descriptions of staff-student interactions. We learn most powerfully within the zone of proximal development, where social interactions and specific ways of using language help cognitive development, help make the the shift from naïve formulations based on untested assumptions to more sophisticated and tested ways of teaching effectively. While personally I find that submitting multiple drafts encourages in some students an over-dependence on staff guidance, at least two conversations with a staff member (with one-on-one or with peers present) would be ideal in helping students see how theory might illuminate practice.
    THE PURPOSE OF CASE STUDY WRITINGHammerness et al are clear about the purpose of writing case studies: they help students to build a bridge between theory and practice. The bridge metaphor permeates the article. The students have had an experience; theory helps them to understand that experience. Theory travels over the bridge in order to illuminate past experience. The purpose of case study writing is understanding of what has already occurred.
    … case writing as an opportunity to better appreciate the relationship between theory and practice, helping them to recognize the value of using theory to explain and evaluate their classroom work. (224)
    they had developed richer explanations that seemed to account for the more complex, layered nature of the case.(225)
    Students were able to build on the theoretical connections and links seeded by instructors, in turn, pushing their cases beyond mere personal exploration towards more powerful explanations. (239)Emeritus Professor Lee Shulman
    There’s a focus on ‘what has happened’ rather than ‘what might happen now that the theory has been seen to be relevant’. The focus is on the past, rather than on the future.
    Is this nit-picking? Of course there’s an implicit (and sometimes explicit) acknowledgement in the article (and no doubt in the Standord course) that case studies help preservice teachers to prepare their future actions:
    This very articulation [says one of the students] has given me principles that I might in the future utilize in order to become an independent and effective practitioner in a community of educators. 238)
    When prompted, students were able to generalize from their cases, moving beyond their specifi￿c, immediate experience to consider how these experiences might inform their teaching in the future, to draw broad lessons about student learning and teaching, and to link their particular experiences to those other teachers might encounter. (239)But I’m trying to understand better the resistance of some of our students to seeing theory as being useful.
    When we imply that it’s useful in order to understand what has happened, theory is placed in the realm of thought, of analysis; and this makes it vulnerable to some students’ intuitive sense (backed up by cynical staff room chatter) that theory tells you nothing of practical value, that it’s an intellectual wank, and that you learn to teach by teaching.
    However, when we explicitly switch theory’s target from the past to the future, and from understanding to action, then we can more easily and convincingly talk about theory’s practical usefulness. Theory is not ultimately about understanding. Understanding is a stepping stone on the way to more effective action.
    The Stanford project seems to be asking: Given what you now know, do you understand better what happened?
    I think our project needs to ask: Given what you now know, what might you do differently?
     
    [1] Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.

    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged Karen Hammerness, Lee Shulman, Linda Darling-Hammond, theory, zone of proximal development | 5 Replies
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    "Together, Dr. Paul and Coach Meg offer hope. They show us what works and help us create a
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    4
    5
    Organize Your Mind Organize Your Life
    TRAIN YOUR BRAIN
    TO GET MORE DONE IN LESS TIME
    Paul Hammerness, MD & Margaret Moore
    with John Hanc
    CONTENTS
    7
    Introduction
    CHAPTER 1: The Rules of Order/Dr. Hammerness
    CHAPTER 2: A Change Will Do You Good/Coach Meg
    CHAPTER 3: Rules of Order/Tame the Frenzy
    CHAPTER 4: Rules of Order/Sustain Attention
    CHAPTER 5: Rules of Order/Apply the Brakes
    CHAPTER 6: Rules of Order/Mold Information
    CHAPTER 7: Rules of Order/Shift Sets
    CHAPTER 8: Rules of Order/Connect the Dots
    CHAPTER 9: Staying on Top of a Fast-Changing World
    APPENDIX 1: The Rules of Order At-A-Glance
    APPENDIX 2: The Top 10 (Dis)organizational Complaints--and Our Solutions
    Notes
    References
    Acknowledgments
    About the Authors
    9
    INTRODUCTION
    HOW ORGANIZED ARE YOU?
    (Please answer A, B or C.)
     A. VERY ORGANIZED. My desk is neat, I never miss an appointment or a deadline,
    my friends are amazed, my co-workers are jealous and my boss loves me.
     B. MODERATELY ORGANIZED. I manage to stay on top of things pretty well, but
    sometimes I feel overwhelmed, not sure what to do first, and I must admit that I'm a little
    jealous of my colleagues and my boss who seem more organized.
     C. COMPLETELY DISORGANIZED. In fact, I'll be lucky if I can remember where I
    parked my car. That's assuming I don't get a text or a phone call in the next two minutes,
    which will completely throw me off and...what was the question again?
    If you answered A, B or C, this book is for you! In Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life, we
    share with you the six key ways in which you can use "top-down organization" to get more done
    in a lot less time--and feel good about it.
    By "top-down organization," we mean brain science. As you will see, there are amazing new
    insights gleaned about the way our brain works to organize our thoughts, actions and emotions.
    Through hightech brain scans, or neuroimaging, we can now "see" the response of the brain to
    various situations. Here's an exciting example of what scientists have found.
    10
    THE ORGANIZED BRAIN IN ACTION
    In a 2008 study, subjects were shown a series of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures while
    they were attempting the difficult task of keeping in check their emotional reactions. Through the
    use of hightech brain imaging or neuroimaging, researchers were able to observe the "thinking"
    regions of the subjects' brains (including areas called the prefrontal cortex and the anterior
    cingulate cortex) managing the "emotion"-generating parts of the brain. It's an intriguing new 
    study that sheds light into the brain's own built-in system of organization and regulation--one
    that strives for order, one that can "tamp down" (suppress) our emotions when necessary.
    As we will show you, once you can better manage your emotions, you can then begin to
    harmonize and focus the various "thinking" parts of your brain, opening up a whole new world
    before you. You're on your way to achieving a more organized, less stressful, more productive
    and, in many ways, more rewarding life. And--here's the most exciting part--the features in the
    brain's magnificent self-regulation system come "preloaded" in every functioning human mind;
    these features can be accessed, initialized and utilized to allow you to become better organized
    and to feel more on top of things.
    You just have to know how to do it. That's what this book will show you.
    WHAT MAKES THIS ORGANIZATION BOOK DIFFERENT?
    This is not a book meant to give you tips on how to rearrange your desk, to make lists or to set
    up a better system for keeping track of your appointments.
    This is a prescriptive book that will help you better organize your life by better organizing your
    mind, by making some basic changes in
    11
    the way you think about and deal with your work, your colleagues, your family and yourself on a
    day-to-day basis. As a result, you will become better focused, more attentive, less distracted and
    better able to adapt to new situations and changes that, in the past, might have overwhelmed you.
    Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life is organized differently than most self-help books. At
    its core is a unique partnership between a leading Harvard clinician-researcher and a leader in
    coaching for health and well-being--a collaboration that serves as a model for the future and can
    help make a big impact on readers like yourself. In a physician-coach partnership, a new concept
    in personal health, a Doctor of Medicine diagnoses the problem, explains what you need to do
    and plants the seeds for you to make the change. Then, a certified wellness coach guides you
    through implementation of the change.
    Here is our team:
    PAUL HAMMERNESS, MD , is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical
    School; Assistant Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital; and
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Newton Wellesley Hospital. Dr. Hammerness has been
    involved in research on the brain and behavior for the past 10 years, with a focus on Attention
    Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He has lectured on the topic locally, nationally and
    internationally to other physicians, mental health professionals, educators and families. In his
    clinical practice, Dr. Hammerness sees on a daily basis what a clinically "disorganized" mind
    looks like across the age spectrum, whether it's an eight-year-old who is struggling in school due
    to inattention or a forty-eight-year-old professional woman whose life-long organizational 
    problems are now affecting her work and family life. From research, and from witnessing the
    struggles of people with clinically "disorganized" or distracted brains, Dr. Hammerness shares
    his insights into what a well-ordered brain can do.
    12
    MARGARET MOORE , aka Coach Meg, is codirector of the Institute of Coaching at McLean
    Hospital, and a founding advisor of the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine at Spaulding Hospital,
    both affiliates of Harvard Medical School, founder of a leading coach training school,
    Wellcoaches, and co-author of a coach training textbook. Margaret and the thousands of coaches
    she has trained have helped guide tens of thousands of clients through important and positive
    changes in their health, work and personal lives.
    We mentioned the preponderance of books on getting organized that are available. Maybe there
    are a couple right next to this one. While many of them are good, they often use a bit of an
    outdated model that begins with organizing your surroundings--your office, your desk, your
    household--rather than organizing your mind. Dr. Hammerness and Coach Meg have a new
    approach based on the latest scientific literature that employs a top-down (that is, starting with
    your brain) organizational process--achieved by first understanding six key brain concepts and
    then employing specific coaching strategies to integrate each of these into your daily life, with
    astounding results.
    These concepts refer to brain or "cognitive" traits and abilities that we all have but that most
    don't recognize nor know how to utilize. Think of them as embedded features in your brain,
    waiting to be switched on. Dr. Hammerness will show you where the switch is located and how
    it works, and Coach Meg will show you how to engage it. So as with the four-wheel drive in
    your car, you can cruise smoothly over the roughest roads into a more organized and productive
    future.
    These cognitive features can be learned and practiced through the innovative method of self-
    coaching. They will help you become better organized, less distracted, more focused--with a
    mind poised and ready to surf the heavy waves of distraction that come rolling in on us in today's
    world.
    13
    To help you become better organized, we have organized this book into a prescriptive "one-two
    punch" that will enable you to understand clearly the brain science behind these cognitive skills,
    and then help you adapt it as part of your own make-up.
    It's science, followed by solution.
    COACHING: THE ORGANIZATIONAL SECRET
    That solution--how we will help you to get on top of things, to tap into your "embedded"
    organizational abilities, improve focus and attention and better structure your life--is one of the 
    unique features of this book. To help you learn how to better function in this distracted world, we
    will use the new but highly effective psychological technique known as coaching, which
    coauthor Margaret Moore, aka Coach Meg, will explain further in the second chapter. Defined
    by some as the art and science of facilitating positive change, coaching is essentially a process
    for developing a road map for well-being--and becoming motivated and confident in our ability
    to implement it.
    In this book, Coach Meg approaches the reader as she would one of her clients in practice. Think
    of her as your coach, a collaborator, helping guide you through the journey of positive change
    that is the hallmark of what successful coaching is all about. We will take the journey together,
    and the process begins with what it is that you're feeling--about your emotions, about your sense
    of organization or lack thereof, about your life.
    That's the "one-two" prescriptive punch of this book.
    Dr. Hammerness identifies and explains the organizing principles (or, as we call them, our Rules
    of Order) that are the hallmarks of an attentive, focused brain--one that is able to shift, adapt and
    function
    14
    at maximum effectiveness even amidst the constant bombardment of stimulus that is today's
    world.
    Coach Meg shows you how to make these principles your own. She helps you help yourself and
    guides you step by step toward a more organized mind and, more importantly, toward becoming
    a better functioning person, enjoying a more productive life.
    While their knowledge is rooted in neuroscience, psychology and the science of change that
    underlines coaching theory, their prescription for you is clear, practical, motivational and--most
    of all--doable.
    You can improve your level of organization; you can learn to tune out the distractions in your
    life; you can learn to ride the waves of change in a fast-changing world.
    Let's go back to that little quiz. If you answered B or C (or even A--because maybe you're
    rethinking that response as you realize you forgot to reply to the guy from sales who e-mailed
    you the other day), you are not alone.
    By all measures, we are living in a distracted, unfocused world. Call it the flip side of the digital
    revolution that now gives us such fast access to unlimited amounts of information and that has
    opened up so many new channels of instant communication. It's great to be able to use Facebook
    to find your old high school friends, right? It's so convenient to use Google or Bing to find the
    study you were looking for as opposed to going to a library, isn't it? Can you imagine not being
    able to send an e-mail to a colleague or a client?
    Of course, when all those colleagues and clients e-mail you back and, at the same time, your boss
    is calling you, and your kids are texting you, and your friends are instant messaging you, well,
    then you might be forgiven for a bit of nostalgic longing. There was a time when you weren't
    always so reachable, no matter where you were, no matter the time; and when you weren't
    always being bombarded by so
    15
    much stimuli, whether in the form of e-mail, texts, tweets or whatever new technology may
    emerge...well, any minute now. "'Information overload' has become almost a cliché," writes the
    Institute for the Future, a think-tank in Palo Alto, California, in a 2010 report on cognitive
    overload. "We use the phrase half-jokingly to describe the stress associated with the onslaught of
    media that digital technology has unleashed on us. The sobering reality is that we ain't seen
    nothing yet. The suffocation of endless incoming e-mail demanding immediate response, the
    twinge of guilt from falling behind on your RSS feeds, dread about a TiVo hard drive full of
    unwatched shows--these are all just a teaser for what's to come. No matter how many computers
    surround us, collecting, aggregating and delivering information, we each have only one pair of
    eyes and ears, and more importantly, one mind, to deal with the data."
    One mind, indeed--but that's where the solution lies.
    THE DISTRACTION EPIDEMIC
    Nowhere is information overload more evident than in the United States, where some people
    consider this the psychological equivalent to the obesity epidemic. We even have an unofficial
    president of Distracted America. No, not the one in the White House but rather in Albany, New
    York. There, the risks of distraction and disorganization were crystallized in a single, career-
    flame-out moment in the summer of 2009--a now-infamous moment that made Malcolm Smith a
    punch line and a punching bag, as well as a cautionary tale.
    Smith, a Democrat, was the New York State Senate Majority Leader who famously fiddled with
    his BlackBerry, checking e-mails, while billionaire Thomas Golisano, a major independent
    political player in New York, was trying to talk to him. Golisano, who had made a special trip
    16
    to Albany to meet with Smith, was furious. "When I travel 250 miles to make a case on how to
    save the state a lot of money and the guy comes into his office and starts playing with his
    BlackBerry, I was miffed," he told reporters.
    Golisano was so miffed that he went to the Republicans and told them he'd be happy to help
    unseat Smith, perhaps in the hopes of having him replaced with someone who could pay
    attention for a few minutes. Faster than you can say "you've got mail," the state Republicans
    engineered a coup, Smith's party was divided, the opposition was poised to take back control of
    the Senate, and the majority leader was being pilloried in the news media.
    "Smith Fiddles with BlackBerry While Senate Burns!" read one headline.
    "Blame it on the BlackBerry!" crowed another.
    Wrong--blame it on distraction. What cost Smith dearly, and plunged one of the largest states in
    America into one of the worst constitutional crises in its nearly 235-year history, was (besides
    maybe some bad manners) a lack of focus, divided attention.
    The problem isn't limited to the United States, either. One of the biggest scandals in the British
    tabloids in 2010--right up there with Duchess of York Sarah Ferguson's admission that she
    accepted bribes to give business officials access to her influential ex-husband--involved a union
    official who, during emergency meeting negotiations with British Airway officials hoping to
    avoid a strike, sent Twitter messages--some at the rate of three or four an hour. When airline
    officials found out he was tweeting while they were supposed to be talking, they were furious;
    the negotiations broke down and the strike was on, disrupting travel plans for thousands of
    people on one of the world's biggest airlines. "Twitter Blamed for Wrecking British Airway
    Peace Talks," screamed London's Daily Telegraph on its front page. Again, the wrong culprit:
    Twitter is
    17
    not to blame. Rather, it's a brain unable to stay focused even in a critical meeting that
    demonstrates an inability to put down a handheld device and look another human in the eye.
    Still, at least, Malcolm Smith and the British union official weren't behind the wheel of a car.
    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that at least 25 percent of all auto
    crashes involve some sort of driver distraction--and there are those who believe this number is
    steadily climbing as those distractions multiply with the addition of each new mobile
    communications device, every cell phone feature, every new satellite radio station, every new
    sign on the road.
    But are the signs, the phones and the stations themselves really the problem? Once again, no.
    The problem is that we can't deal with them. The problem is that we can't focus. The problem is
    that we're overwhelmed and disorganized, and the net effect of the Distraction Crisis can be felt
    in the workplace, at home and in our individual health.
    Some other distressing distraction-related statistics:
     Forty-three percent of Americans categorize themselves as disorganized, and 21 percent
    have missed vital work deadlines. Nearly half say disorganization causes them to work
    late at least two times each week. 1
     A lack of time management and discipline while working toward [financial] planners'
    professional goals contributes to 63 percent of those surveyed facing obstacles regarding
    their health. There is a direct correlation between too much stress, deteriorating health
    and poor practice management. 2
    18
     Forty-eight percent of Americans feel that their lives have become more stressful in the
    past five years. About one-half of Americans say that stress has a negative impact on both
    their personal and professional lives. About one-third (31 percent) of employed adults
    have difficulty managing work and family responsibilities. And over one third (35
    percent) cite jobs interfering with their family or personal time as a significant source of
    stress. 3
     In a Gallup poll, 80 percent of workers said they feel stress on the job, nearly half said
    they need help in learning how to manage stress and 42 percent said their coworkers need
    help coping with stress. Job stress can lead to several problems, including illness and
    injury for employees, as well as higher insurance costs and lost productivity for
    employers. 4
     According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 80 percent of our medical
    expenditures are now stress-related. 5
     Seventy percent of employees work beyond scheduled time and on weekends; more than
    half cited "self-imposed pressure" as the reason. 6
    One specific category of disorganization or, to be precise, distraction has come to symbolize an
    era of divided attention: distracted driving. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has a
    special website dedicated to this problem (distraction.gov), in which readers are reminded about
    the perils of distracted driving, which is often thought of as just texting but also includes driving
    while talking on a cell phone, watching a video, reading a map or other behaviors that involve
    taking your eyes off the road or away from the safe operation of your vehicle.
    The scope, effects and consequences of distracted driving are sobering, according to statistics
    compiled by DOT:
     Using a cell phone while driving, whether it's hand-held or hands-free, delays a driver's
    reactions as much as having a blood alcohol concentration at the legal limit of .08
    percent. 7
     Driving while using a cell phone reduces the amount of brain activity associated with
    driving by 37 percent. 8
     Nearly six thousand people died in 2008 in crashes involving a distracted driver and more
    than half a million were injured. 9
     The younger, inexperienced drivers under twenty years old have the highest proportion of
    distraction-related fatal crashes.
     Drivers who use hand-held devices are four times as likely to get into crashes serious
    enough to injure themselves. 10
    19
    Lest we assume, as many seem to do, that distracted driving is purely a problem of the young;
    teenagers and young adults who are checking their friends' Facebook status while doing ninety
    miles per hour on the interstate, think again: almost half of adults who send text messages have
    sent them while driving, according to a 2010 study by the Pew Research Center (the same study 
    found that about one-third of sixteen-and seventeen-year-olds admitted that they had done the
    same). According to distraction.gov, half of all people in the United States admit to cell phone
    use while driving; one in every seven admit to sending cell phone text messages while driving.
    These are also folks who should know better: 65 percent of drivers with a higher education text
    or talk while driving.
    All in all, the distracted driving crisis--part of that larger Distraction Epidemic--seems to some a
    part of an even greater problem, suggesting that the human race has reached a point of
    information overload--or at least a point where we feel so overwhelmed by the demands of our
    lives that we would risk our lives for one more text or phone call. In 2010, The New York Times
    published a series of articles about the supposedly dire effects of technology on our brain. In a
    USA TODAY story on the issue, one researcher concluded gloomily that "people are multi-
    tasking probably beyond our cognitive limits."
    20
    A DISTRACTED FACT OF LIFE?
    Some say there's little that can be done about all of this. The pace of life is increasing and the
    distractions multiplying. Get used to it. You're powerless. To which we say, baloney! While we
    may not be able to slow down technological change or the speed with which life unfolds around
    us--and in some cases, why would we want to?--we very definitely can find a way to better
    manage ourselves, in order to not only deal with change and complexity but also thrive amidst it.
    This book is designed to show you how.
    Remember: for every driver driven to distraction and for every stressed-out person who has lost
    an assignment, a job or a vital piece of information because he or she was disorganized and
    distracted, there are people on the opposite end of the spectrum. These are individuals who know
    how to use their brain's abilities to organize their lives, to stay focused on the tasks at hand and
    to enjoy greater productivity--and pleasure!--at work and at home.
    Some of them you probably know: athletes such as Derek Jeter or Tom Brady, famous for their
    ability to block out distraction and focus on the little white ball or the white line on the field
    ahead, public servants such as General David Petraeus, making life-and-death decisions in the
    midst of a foreign country exploding in religious civil war; Steve Jobs, a visionary who manages
    one of the world's largest and most influential corporations; Hillary Clinton, patiently mastering
    the minutiae and intricacies of a seemingly intractable conflict as she engages Palestinians and
    Israelis at the bargaining table. And the ranks of the super-organized are not limited to
    government, big business or the pressure cooker of professional sports: how about J.K. Rowling,
    whose disciplined imagination enabled her to create the Harry Potter world? (Imagine how
    organized she had to
    21
    be to keep track of, much less create, the Hogwarts faculty and their complex histories.)
    There are numerous examples of famous people whose achievements lie, at least to some degree,
    in their ability to stay calm, focused and organized, especially in the midst of crisis. There are
    many other very successful people whose names might not make headlines but who have,
    through both innate and learned skills, managed to harness their cognitive powers in a way that
    makes them extraordinarily productive, both on the job and at home.
    Let's meet two of them.
    ORGANIZED MINDS AT WORK AND PLAY
    By 8:30 am most mornings, Rob Shmerling has already exercised for an hour, has caught up on
    world and national news, and is well into responding to his e-mails.
    For two hours, he exchanges messages with colleagues and scours various websites for the latest
    medical news. Dr. Shmerling is a physician and the clinical chief of the division of rheumatology
    at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.
    It's a big administrative job at one of the country's leading hospitals--but it's not all that he does.
    Shmerling, fifty-four, also writes and does research--he has authored a total of forty-one journal
    articles, book chapters or reviews, as well as numerous web stories for nonexpert audiences. He
    also teaches and mentors medical students and residents. He is a husband and a father of two
    daughters. He volunteers at a women's shelter once a week. He and his wife belong to a book
    club (Janice Y.K. Lee's The Piano Teacher and Kathryn Stockett's The Help are two recent
    novels they've enjoyed). He also "hacks away" at the piano, is an
    22
    amateur photographer and, on weekends, enjoys long bike rides in the Massachusetts
    countryside.
    Oh, and he washes and folds socks, too.
    "I'm the laundry guy," he says proudly. "Everybody in our house has their job, and that one's
    mine."
    Actually it's one of many jobs, as you can see.
    How does Shmerling cram it all into one day, one week, one life, and make it look easy?
    He admits that he is a creature of habit and was always fairly structured. "I can recall organizing
    the crayons by color in those sixty-four-Crayola packs as a little kid," he says with a laugh. But,
    he's quick to add, a lot of the skills that help keep him organized he learned because he had to.
    And he's still learning. "I've gotten better at ignoring things," he said. For example, "We have
    this e-mail system where a quick preview of the e-mail comes up on your screen, and at first it
    was distracting. Now I've gotten better at sticking with the matter at hand. If it's a really
    important message, I can attend to it, but I don't let them distract me as they pop up." 
    In the hospital, things come at Dr. Shmerling fast and furious. A patient's condition might
    change. An administrative problem may arise. A resident or a nurse or a colleague may need an
    immediate answer. And sometimes the decisions really are a matter of life and death. "I used to
    get more easily flustered when several things were coming at me," he says. "Now I've learned
    how to deal with it. Now I can shift pretty quickly from one thing to another and prioritize."
    The problems that do come up are often complex ones--what course of action to prescribe to
    someone with arthritis, lupus or osteoporosis; dealing with patient complaints or concerns;
    helping to mediate or referee internal problems that arise, whether with staff or fellow
    physicians. He knows how to act, but he also knows how to think before he acts.
    23
    "I try to imagine the range of options for a given situation and figure out fairly quickly if this is
    something I've seen before," he explains. "If not, if it's something better done by someone else,
    or if I'm going to need someone else's help solving this, I mentally file it away, putting it aside
    for later."
    Putting his attention on and pulling it off, deftly and smoothly, as the need arises--that's a sign, as
    we'll see, of an organized mind. Dr. Shmerling does it with a range of tools, some high-tech,
    some not. "If I have to jump off something, I'll bookmark what I was working on," he says.
    "Either with a mental or actual Post-it note so I can return to the right place quickly later on." He
    also has a nice trick for keeping track of his reading (and in his job, he does a lot of it--reports,
    memos, articles). If he's reading a Word document on the computer, "I'll yellow-highlight the
    line I'm on so I can get right back to the page and the line I was on, without wasting time
    scanning through the document, going 'where was I?'"
    Shmerling uses a PalmPilot to keep track of appointments and to have other important
    information at a glance when he needs it, even though, he admits, "I'm regularly laughed at for
    using a device so ancient." And while you might think someone being held up as an exemplar of
    efficient organization would have an empty, ordered desk at the end of each day, it's not the case.
    Dr. Shmerling's offices at home and at the hospital are filled with stacks of books and papers--
    but, he says, "While it might not look organized to you, I know exactly where everything is."
    The efficiency allows him some simple pleasures during the work day. People who feel
    overworked often claim they have no time to read anything but e-mails or work-related
    documents. Shmerling not only finds time to read The Boston Globe every morning online, he
    spends an extra few minutes doing the popular Sudoku numbers puzzle; and is a
    24
    diligent fan of Doonesbury and Dilbert ("Another efficient office guy!" he jokes). Indeed, while
    he is a hard-working professional and leads a busy life, Dr. Shmerling is not some obsessed
    workaholic, constantly looking to squeeze another hour out of his life to devote to work. He likes
    to have fun, he likes to laugh, he has a rich and satisfying personal life and, oh yes, some of that
    time he manages to save by being efficient and organized, he likes to waste. 
    Here's an example: "I like to stop sometimes on my way to work and have Starbucks. If I was
    really trying to be a time management-efficiency nut, I could save a few minutes by making the
    coffee at home or grabbing it at the hospital cafeteria. But I like stopping at the coffee shop. It
    makes the ride more pleasant. Nothing wrong with a little down time."
    A graduate of Harvard Medical School, Shmerling is obviously a smart guy. But he is quick to
    point out that his academic pedigree has nothing whatsoever to do with his ability to be efficient.
    "There's nothing I learned at Harvard or anywhere else specifically that taught me any of this,"
    he says. "None of it requires any particular advanced degree. The measures I take to keep
    organized could certainly be adopted by others."
    Some of those are common sense and can be found in any of the dozens of books about
    organization. "Make a list of what you need to do tomorrow, at the end of each day." Fine. Good
    tip. But there's more at play here. The skills that Shmerling demonstrates--his ability to shift
    from one problem or stimulus to another, to sustain his focus, to attend to several things at once
    while prioritizing quickly the one that is most demanding of his attention and to do it with ease
    and grace while maintaining composure and good humor--speak to qualities that are linked not to
    the layout of his office but the make-up of his mind.
    25
    It's an organized mind and, while he may have certainly nurtured it, nature created it that way.
    We all have the systems, the functions in our mind that enable us to become better organized,
    whether our job involves, as Dr. Shmerling's does, people's lives--or our life savings, as is the
    case with our next organized role model.
    Let's take a peek at a typical day for another organized person.nd hemmerrne of oner by rince kren hemmerrne nd rince lee hulmn n dof rince boy tkolkrite eern nd rince nid nit nitong n dutthy nd rince lender michele nglee nd rince tn ongol itkonguthee nd rince vijit ijit limmnich ndrice vili vili chotikkvichien nd rince ther nd monk ert ert tunthiri nd rince nd ther nd nun nd vid vid nthiti nd of columbi univerity of germny country nd jro nd kill rince leejunki nd rince ton thnit jturutthh.ent by rbbit rince lice in onderlnd nd rince dng vnid nittnitongndutthymhidolchillongkonolert or rince dng utnee omong nd tudy t the oford univerity of germny country.

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    Paul HammernessMargaret Moore

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    PRAISE FOR ORGANIZE YOUR MIND,
    ORGANIZE YOUR LIFE
    "A treasure trove of tips, tools and techniques, making it possible to stay mindful of your self-
    care priorities while navigating the challenging stresses of everyday life."
    --Pam Peeke, MD, MPH, FACP
    Host, Discovery Health TV's Could You Survive?
    Author of New York Times bestseller Fit to Live
    WebMD's Lifestyle Expert
    "Marvelous! This empowering collection of transformative, science-supported tools can help
    anyone change his or her life in healthier, happier directions. If you want a smart, straightforward
    guide to taming the crazy-making factors in your life and fulfilling more of your personal
    potential, this is it!"
    --Pilar Gerasimo
    Editor-in-Chief, Experience Life magazine
    Senior Vice President, Education--Life Time Fitness
    "Hammerness and Moore have translated the latest science in brain function into a few, highly
    effective skills that help us bring order and control in our lives. In a world where distractions are
    ever growing and taking new forms, this book offers key insights that will help us lead less
    stressful and more productive lives at work as well as at home."
    --Jon Ayers
    Chairman, President & CEO, IDEXX Laboratories
    nd Teacher education as preparation for what is or what could be?: some thoughts after reading Grossman, Hammerness & McDonald 2009Posted on July 9, 2012
    2
    Professor Pam Grossman
    … learning about a method or learning to justify a method is not the same thing as learning to do the method with a class of students, just as learning about piano playing and musical theory is not learning to play the piano. The later [sic] requires getting one’s hands on the instrument and feeling it ‘act back’ on one’s performance. Because teaching is situated in instructional interaction, learning how to teach requires getting into relationships with learners to enable their study of content. It is here that one learns how to teach as students ‘act back’ and responses must be tailored to their actions. (Lampert, 2005, p. 36, quoted Grossman et al p 275))This distinction between ‘learning about’ and ‘learning to’ is at the centre of this article by Grossman et al. In an attempt to tackle the tendency in preservice teachers to see theory as one thing and practice as another, they suggest a refocusing of teacher education onto what they call ‘pedagogies of enactment’, and more ‘practice-centred curriculum’. They write:
    This vision has a different emphasis from programs such as a realistic approach, in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center. In this formulation, a set of practices are at the core. (277)The authors list, amongst possible core practices, such related things as developing a classroom culture, routines for collaborative learning, helping students to give constructive feedback to each other, eliciting student thinking during interactive teaching, leading classroom discussions. The authors paint a picture of a teacher education course organised around such core practices, where preservice teachers are introduced to the skills, given opportunities to practise them with peers and teacher educators, are then scaffolded into reading the literature around the practices, and finally given time in schools to further refine their practice.
    It sounds logical and sensible. Much of our current Literacy Across Disciplines unit might be viewed as an example of such a course organised around pedagogies of enactment, using (as it does) Cris Tovani’s various strategies and approaches and giving our students opportunities to work on the nested literacy practices of making texts accessible, modelling successful strategies, holding one’s thinking, using questions to guide reading, finding authentic purpose, and so on. I can imagine re-jigging my other unit, on creating healthy learning environments, so that it was similarly structured around the core practices listed in this article under the broad heading of developing a classroom culture.
    But there’s something about the ‘pedagogies of enactment’ approach that is unsettling me.
    This ‘parsing teaching’ (278) seems a step backwards from the more adventurous ‘case study’ approach of Hammerness and her co-authors (2002), an approach which here Grossman (and Hammerness!) label ‘a realistic approach in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center’ (277). Our course in Canberra puts our preservice teachers’ concerns at the centre and is structured around the case study approach. Our students take observed and experienced school-based events as the place where theory is used to help settle doubts and anxieties. Why did this go wrong? What might I have done to rescue this situation? Or even, if an event was unexpectedly successful, how can I understand better what has just happened so that the chances are I’ll be able to do it again?
    The Grossman article seems to be pointing towards a less-rich, less-situated, less-personal approach. But they claim that it would be a more useful one, where preservice teachers have a better chance to develop skills in generic and ubiquitous classroom practices.
    Maybe that’s the problem (for me): this is training for what is, rather than explorations of what might be. Our approach in Canberra (and that of Hammerness et al in 2002) allows students to reflect on their values, on why they want to teach, and opens up the territory of how they might work towards important ideals, how they might set off along the road less travelled. The Grossman et al approach seems more a preparation for the familiar path.
    Am I making a false dichotomy, I wonder?
    It would be interesting to hear from some of our ex-students on this.
    ********
    Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.
    Pam Grossman, Karen Hammerness and Morva McDonald. ( 2009). “Redefining teaching, re‐imagining teacher education,.” Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 15(2): 273-289.
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    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged classroom management, Karen Hammerness, Pam Grossman, teacher education, theory | 2 RepliesBeyond understanding: revisiting Hammerness et al (2002)Posted on July 6, 2012
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    Dr Karen Hammerness
    It’s been interesting to revisit the Hammerness article. Our own secondary teaching program has been strongly influenced by the approach described here. I love the approach.
    But, as I re-read the article, I found myself thinking particularly about two issues:
    FACE-TO-FACE TIME WITH STUDENTSFirst was the way in the Standford course, face-to-face student-staff time was central.
    At Stanford, they met face to face with their students (lectures, tutorials, workshops) for double the time we meet with our students;Students were required to share with staff two drafts. “On each draft they received extensive feedback from an instructor and a peer, based on a publicly shared and edited rubric.” (223)The evolution of the students’ thinking ‘showed substantial growth and exhibited increasingly professional thinking about practice’ (226), and this was explained largely as a result of the amount and quality of feedback from peers and staff (239) Without this feedback there was ‘a persistence of naïve formulations’ (236)Professor Linda Darling-Hammond
    The spirit of Vygotsky’s ZPD hovered over the these descriptions of staff-student interactions. We learn most powerfully within the zone of proximal development, where social interactions and specific ways of using language help cognitive development, help make the the shift from naïve formulations based on untested assumptions to more sophisticated and tested ways of teaching effectively. While personally I find that submitting multiple drafts encourages in some students an over-dependence on staff guidance, at least two conversations with a staff member (with one-on-one or with peers present) would be ideal in helping students see how theory might illuminate practice.
    THE PURPOSE OF CASE STUDY WRITINGHammerness et al are clear about the purpose of writing case studies: they help students to build a bridge between theory and practice. The bridge metaphor permeates the article. The students have had an experience; theory helps them to understand that experience. Theory travels over the bridge in order to illuminate past experience. The purpose of case study writing is understanding of what has already occurred.
    … case writing as an opportunity to better appreciate the relationship between theory and practice, helping them to recognize the value of using theory to explain and evaluate their classroom work. (224)
    they had developed richer explanations that seemed to account for the more complex, layered nature of the case.(225)
    Students were able to build on the theoretical connections and links seeded by instructors, in turn, pushing their cases beyond mere personal exploration towards more powerful explanations. (239)Emeritus Professor Lee Shulman
    There’s a focus on ‘what has happened’ rather than ‘what might happen now that the theory has been seen to be relevant’. The focus is on the past, rather than on the future.
    Is this nit-picking? Of course there’s an implicit (and sometimes explicit) acknowledgement in the article (and no doubt in the Standord course) that case studies help preservice teachers to prepare their future actions:
    This very articulation [says one of the students] has given me principles that I might in the future utilize in order to become an independent and effective practitioner in a community of educators. 238)
    When prompted, students were able to generalize from their cases, moving beyond their specifi￿c, immediate experience to consider how these experiences might inform their teaching in the future, to draw broad lessons about student learning and teaching, and to link their particular experiences to those other teachers might encounter. (239)But I’m trying to understand better the resistance of some of our students to seeing theory as being useful.
    When we imply that it’s useful in order to understand what has happened, theory is placed in the realm of thought, of analysis; and this makes it vulnerable to some students’ intuitive sense (backed up by cynical staff room chatter) that theory tells you nothing of practical value, that it’s an intellectual wank, and that you learn to teach by teaching.
    However, when we explicitly switch theory’s target from the past to the future, and from understanding to action, then we can more easily and convincingly talk about theory’s practical usefulness. Theory is not ultimately about understanding. Understanding is a stepping stone on the way to more effective action.
    The Stanford project seems to be asking: Given what you now know, do you understand better what happened?
    I think our project needs to ask: Given what you now know, what might you do differently?
     
    [1] Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.

    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged Karen Hammerness, Lee Shulman, Linda Darling-Hammond, theory, zone of proximal development | 5 Replies
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    2
    "Together, Dr. Paul and Coach Meg offer hope. They show us what works and help us create a
    believable, workable plan to be our best in even the most challenging situations. This unique
    wellness coaching offers reasons, real-life strategies and results."
    --Ruth Ann Harnisch, President
    The Harnisch Foundation
    "Practical and very accessible, this book significantly empowers anyone's ability to nimbly
    manage the massive amounts of information we all must deal with in an increasingly complex
    high-tech world."
    --Jeffrey M. Schwartz, MD
    Research Psychiatrist, UCLA
    Coauthor of You Are Not Your Brain and The Mind & the Brain
    4
    5
    Organize Your Mind Organize Your Life
    TRAIN YOUR BRAIN
    TO GET MORE DONE IN LESS TIME
    Paul Hammerness, MD & Margaret Moore
    with John Hanc
    CONTENTS
    7
    Introduction
    CHAPTER 1: The Rules of Order/Dr. Hammerness
    CHAPTER 2: A Change Will Do You Good/Coach Meg
    CHAPTER 3: Rules of Order/Tame the Frenzy
    CHAPTER 4: Rules of Order/Sustain Attention
    CHAPTER 5: Rules of Order/Apply the Brakes
    CHAPTER 6: Rules of Order/Mold Information
    CHAPTER 7: Rules of Order/Shift Sets
    CHAPTER 8: Rules of Order/Connect the Dots
    CHAPTER 9: Staying on Top of a Fast-Changing World
    APPENDIX 1: The Rules of Order At-A-Glance
    APPENDIX 2: The Top 10 (Dis)organizational Complaints--and Our Solutions
    Notes
    References
    Acknowledgments
    About the Authors
    9
    INTRODUCTION
    HOW ORGANIZED ARE YOU?
    (Please answer A, B or C.)
     A. VERY ORGANIZED. My desk is neat, I never miss an appointment or a deadline,
    my friends are amazed, my co-workers are jealous and my boss loves me.
     B. MODERATELY ORGANIZED. I manage to stay on top of things pretty well, but
    sometimes I feel overwhelmed, not sure what to do first, and I must admit that I'm a little
    jealous of my colleagues and my boss who seem more organized.
     C. COMPLETELY DISORGANIZED. In fact, I'll be lucky if I can remember where I
    parked my car. That's assuming I don't get a text or a phone call in the next two minutes,
    which will completely throw me off and...what was the question again?
    If you answered A, B or C, this book is for you! In Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life, we
    share with you the six key ways in which you can use "top-down organization" to get more done
    in a lot less time--and feel good about it.
    By "top-down organization," we mean brain science. As you will see, there are amazing new
    insights gleaned about the way our brain works to organize our thoughts, actions and emotions.
    Through hightech brain scans, or neuroimaging, we can now "see" the response of the brain to
    various situations. Here's an exciting example of what scientists have found.
    10
    THE ORGANIZED BRAIN IN ACTION
    In a 2008 study, subjects were shown a series of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures while
    they were attempting the difficult task of keeping in check their emotional reactions. Through the
    use of hightech brain imaging or neuroimaging, researchers were able to observe the "thinking"
    regions of the subjects' brains (including areas called the prefrontal cortex and the anterior
    cingulate cortex) managing the "emotion"-generating parts of the brain. It's an intriguing new 
    study that sheds light into the brain's own built-in system of organization and regulation--one
    that strives for order, one that can "tamp down" (suppress) our emotions when necessary.
    As we will show you, once you can better manage your emotions, you can then begin to
    harmonize and focus the various "thinking" parts of your brain, opening up a whole new world
    before you. You're on your way to achieving a more organized, less stressful, more productive
    and, in many ways, more rewarding life. And--here's the most exciting part--the features in the
    brain's magnificent self-regulation system come "preloaded" in every functioning human mind;
    these features can be accessed, initialized and utilized to allow you to become better organized
    and to feel more on top of things.
    You just have to know how to do it. That's what this book will show you.
    WHAT MAKES THIS ORGANIZATION BOOK DIFFERENT?
    This is not a book meant to give you tips on how to rearrange your desk, to make lists or to set
    up a better system for keeping track of your appointments.
    This is a prescriptive book that will help you better organize your life by better organizing your
    mind, by making some basic changes in
    11
    the way you think about and deal with your work, your colleagues, your family and yourself on a
    day-to-day basis. As a result, you will become better focused, more attentive, less distracted and
    better able to adapt to new situations and changes that, in the past, might have overwhelmed you.
    Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life is organized differently than most self-help books. At
    its core is a unique partnership between a leading Harvard clinician-researcher and a leader in
    coaching for health and well-being--a collaboration that serves as a model for the future and can
    help make a big impact on readers like yourself. In a physician-coach partnership, a new concept
    in personal health, a Doctor of Medicine diagnoses the problem, explains what you need to do
    and plants the seeds for you to make the change. Then, a certified wellness coach guides you
    through implementation of the change.
    Here is our team:
    PAUL HAMMERNESS, MD , is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical
    School; Assistant Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital; and
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Newton Wellesley Hospital. Dr. Hammerness has been
    involved in research on the brain and behavior for the past 10 years, with a focus on Attention
    Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He has lectured on the topic locally, nationally and
    internationally to other physicians, mental health professionals, educators and families. In his
    clinical practice, Dr. Hammerness sees on a daily basis what a clinically "disorganized" mind
    looks like across the age spectrum, whether it's an eight-year-old who is struggling in school due
    to inattention or a forty-eight-year-old professional woman whose life-long organizational 
    problems are now affecting her work and family life. From research, and from witnessing the
    struggles of people with clinically "disorganized" or distracted brains, Dr. Hammerness shares
    his insights into what a well-ordered brain can do.
    12
    MARGARET MOORE , aka Coach Meg, is codirector of the Institute of Coaching at McLean
    Hospital, and a founding advisor of the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine at Spaulding Hospital,
    both affiliates of Harvard Medical School, founder of a leading coach training school,
    Wellcoaches, and co-author of a coach training textbook. Margaret and the thousands of coaches
    she has trained have helped guide tens of thousands of clients through important and positive
    changes in their health, work and personal lives.
    We mentioned the preponderance of books on getting organized that are available. Maybe there
    are a couple right next to this one. While many of them are good, they often use a bit of an
    outdated model that begins with organizing your surroundings--your office, your desk, your
    household--rather than organizing your mind. Dr. Hammerness and Coach Meg have a new
    approach based on the latest scientific literature that employs a top-down (that is, starting with
    your brain) organizational process--achieved by first understanding six key brain concepts and
    then employing specific coaching strategies to integrate each of these into your daily life, with
    astounding results.
    These concepts refer to brain or "cognitive" traits and abilities that we all have but that most
    don't recognize nor know how to utilize. Think of them as embedded features in your brain,
    waiting to be switched on. Dr. Hammerness will show you where the switch is located and how
    it works, and Coach Meg will show you how to engage it. So as with the four-wheel drive in
    your car, you can cruise smoothly over the roughest roads into a more organized and productive
    future.
    These cognitive features can be learned and practiced through the innovative method of self-
    coaching. They will help you become better organized, less distracted, more focused--with a
    mind poised and ready to surf the heavy waves of distraction that come rolling in on us in today's
    world.
    13
    To help you become better organized, we have organized this book into a prescriptive "one-two
    punch" that will enable you to understand clearly the brain science behind these cognitive skills,
    and then help you adapt it as part of your own make-up.
    It's science, followed by solution.
    COACHING: THE ORGANIZATIONAL SECRET
    That solution--how we will help you to get on top of things, to tap into your "embedded"
    organizational abilities, improve focus and attention and better structure your life--is one of the 
    unique features of this book. To help you learn how to better function in this distracted world, we
    will use the new but highly effective psychological technique known as coaching, which
    coauthor Margaret Moore, aka Coach Meg, will explain further in the second chapter. Defined
    by some as the art and science of facilitating positive change, coaching is essentially a process
    for developing a road map for well-being--and becoming motivated and confident in our ability
    to implement it.
    In this book, Coach Meg approaches the reader as she would one of her clients in practice. Think
    of her as your coach, a collaborator, helping guide you through the journey of positive change
    that is the hallmark of what successful coaching is all about. We will take the journey together,
    and the process begins with what it is that you're feeling--about your emotions, about your sense
    of organization or lack thereof, about your life.
    That's the "one-two" prescriptive punch of this book.
    Dr. Hammerness identifies and explains the organizing principles (or, as we call them, our Rules
    of Order) that are the hallmarks of an attentive, focused brain--one that is able to shift, adapt and
    function
    14
    at maximum effectiveness even amidst the constant bombardment of stimulus that is today's
    world.
    Coach Meg shows you how to make these principles your own. She helps you help yourself and
    guides you step by step toward a more organized mind and, more importantly, toward becoming
    a better functioning person, enjoying a more productive life.
    While their knowledge is rooted in neuroscience, psychology and the science of change that
    underlines coaching theory, their prescription for you is clear, practical, motivational and--most
    of all--doable.
    You can improve your level of organization; you can learn to tune out the distractions in your
    life; you can learn to ride the waves of change in a fast-changing world.
    Let's go back to that little quiz. If you answered B or C (or even A--because maybe you're
    rethinking that response as you realize you forgot to reply to the guy from sales who e-mailed
    you the other day), you are not alone.
    By all measures, we are living in a distracted, unfocused world. Call it the flip side of the digital
    revolution that now gives us such fast access to unlimited amounts of information and that has
    opened up so many new channels of instant communication. It's great to be able to use Facebook
    to find your old high school friends, right? It's so convenient to use Google or Bing to find the
    study you were looking for as opposed to going to a library, isn't it? Can you imagine not being
    able to send an e-mail to a colleague or a client?
    Of course, when all those colleagues and clients e-mail you back and, at the same time, your boss
    is calling you, and your kids are texting you, and your friends are instant messaging you, well,
    then you might be forgiven for a bit of nostalgic longing. There was a time when you weren't
    always so reachable, no matter where you were, no matter the time; and when you weren't
    always being bombarded by so
    15
    much stimuli, whether in the form of e-mail, texts, tweets or whatever new technology may
    emerge...well, any minute now. "'Information overload' has become almost a cliché," writes the
    Institute for the Future, a think-tank in Palo Alto, California, in a 2010 report on cognitive
    overload. "We use the phrase half-jokingly to describe the stress associated with the onslaught of
    media that digital technology has unleashed on us. The sobering reality is that we ain't seen
    nothing yet. The suffocation of endless incoming e-mail demanding immediate response, the
    twinge of guilt from falling behind on your RSS feeds, dread about a TiVo hard drive full of
    unwatched shows--these are all just a teaser for what's to come. No matter how many computers
    surround us, collecting, aggregating and delivering information, we each have only one pair of
    eyes and ears, and more importantly, one mind, to deal with the data."
    One mind, indeed--but that's where the solution lies.
    THE DISTRACTION EPIDEMIC
    Nowhere is information overload more evident than in the United States, where some people
    consider this the psychological equivalent to the obesity epidemic. We even have an unofficial
    president of Distracted America. No, not the one in the White House but rather in Albany, New
    York. There, the risks of distraction and disorganization were crystallized in a single, career-
    flame-out moment in the summer of 2009--a now-infamous moment that made Malcolm Smith a
    punch line and a punching bag, as well as a cautionary tale.
    Smith, a Democrat, was the New York State Senate Majority Leader who famously fiddled with
    his BlackBerry, checking e-mails, while billionaire Thomas Golisano, a major independent
    political player in New York, was trying to talk to him. Golisano, who had made a special trip
    16
    to Albany to meet with Smith, was furious. "When I travel 250 miles to make a case on how to
    save the state a lot of money and the guy comes into his office and starts playing with his
    BlackBerry, I was miffed," he told reporters.
    Golisano was so miffed that he went to the Republicans and told them he'd be happy to help
    unseat Smith, perhaps in the hopes of having him replaced with someone who could pay
    attention for a few minutes. Faster than you can say "you've got mail," the state Republicans
    engineered a coup, Smith's party was divided, the opposition was poised to take back control of
    the Senate, and the majority leader was being pilloried in the news media.
    "Smith Fiddles with BlackBerry While Senate Burns!" read one headline.
    "Blame it on the BlackBerry!" crowed another.
    Wrong--blame it on distraction. What cost Smith dearly, and plunged one of the largest states in
    America into one of the worst constitutional crises in its nearly 235-year history, was (besides
    maybe some bad manners) a lack of focus, divided attention.
    The problem isn't limited to the United States, either. One of the biggest scandals in the British
    tabloids in 2010--right up there with Duchess of York Sarah Ferguson's admission that she
    accepted bribes to give business officials access to her influential ex-husband--involved a union
    official who, during emergency meeting negotiations with British Airway officials hoping to
    avoid a strike, sent Twitter messages--some at the rate of three or four an hour. When airline
    officials found out he was tweeting while they were supposed to be talking, they were furious;
    the negotiations broke down and the strike was on, disrupting travel plans for thousands of
    people on one of the world's biggest airlines. "Twitter Blamed for Wrecking British Airway
    Peace Talks," screamed London's Daily Telegraph on its front page. Again, the wrong culprit:
    Twitter is
    17
    not to blame. Rather, it's a brain unable to stay focused even in a critical meeting that
    demonstrates an inability to put down a handheld device and look another human in the eye.
    Still, at least, Malcolm Smith and the British union official weren't behind the wheel of a car.
    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that at least 25 percent of all auto
    crashes involve some sort of driver distraction--and there are those who believe this number is
    steadily climbing as those distractions multiply with the addition of each new mobile
    communications device, every cell phone feature, every new satellite radio station, every new
    sign on the road.
    But are the signs, the phones and the stations themselves really the problem? Once again, no.
    The problem is that we can't deal with them. The problem is that we can't focus. The problem is
    that we're overwhelmed and disorganized, and the net effect of the Distraction Crisis can be felt
    in the workplace, at home and in our individual health.
    Some other distressing distraction-related statistics:
     Forty-three percent of Americans categorize themselves as disorganized, and 21 percent
    have missed vital work deadlines. Nearly half say disorganization causes them to work
    late at least two times each week. 1
     A lack of time management and discipline while working toward [financial] planners'
    professional goals contributes to 63 percent of those surveyed facing obstacles regarding
    their health. There is a direct correlation between too much stress, deteriorating health
    and poor practice management. 2
    18
     Forty-eight percent of Americans feel that their lives have become more stressful in the
    past five years. About one-half of Americans say that stress has a negative impact on both
    their personal and professional lives. About one-third (31 percent) of employed adults
    have difficulty managing work and family responsibilities. And over one third (35
    percent) cite jobs interfering with their family or personal time as a significant source of
    stress. 3
     In a Gallup poll, 80 percent of workers said they feel stress on the job, nearly half said
    they need help in learning how to manage stress and 42 percent said their coworkers need
    help coping with stress. Job stress can lead to several problems, including illness and
    injury for employees, as well as higher insurance costs and lost productivity for
    employers. 4
     According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 80 percent of our medical
    expenditures are now stress-related. 5
     Seventy percent of employees work beyond scheduled time and on weekends; more than
    half cited "self-imposed pressure" as the reason. 6
    One specific category of disorganization or, to be precise, distraction has come to symbolize an
    era of divided attention: distracted driving. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has a
    special website dedicated to this problem (distraction.gov), in which readers are reminded about
    the perils of distracted driving, which is often thought of as just texting but also includes driving
    while talking on a cell phone, watching a video, reading a map or other behaviors that involve
    taking your eyes off the road or away from the safe operation of your vehicle.
    The scope, effects and consequences of distracted driving are sobering, according to statistics
    compiled by DOT:
     Using a cell phone while driving, whether it's hand-held or hands-free, delays a driver's
    reactions as much as having a blood alcohol concentration at the legal limit of .08
    percent. 7
     Driving while using a cell phone reduces the amount of brain activity associated with
    driving by 37 percent. 8
     Nearly six thousand people died in 2008 in crashes involving a distracted driver and more
    than half a million were injured. 9
     The younger, inexperienced drivers under twenty years old have the highest proportion of
    distraction-related fatal crashes.
     Drivers who use hand-held devices are four times as likely to get into crashes serious
    enough to injure themselves. 10
    19
    Lest we assume, as many seem to do, that distracted driving is purely a problem of the young;
    teenagers and young adults who are checking their friends' Facebook status while doing ninety
    miles per hour on the interstate, think again: almost half of adults who send text messages have
    sent them while driving, according to a 2010 study by the Pew Research Center (the same study 
    found that about one-third of sixteen-and seventeen-year-olds admitted that they had done the
    same). According to distraction.gov, half of all people in the United States admit to cell phone
    use while driving; one in every seven admit to sending cell phone text messages while driving.
    These are also folks who should know better: 65 percent of drivers with a higher education text
    or talk while driving.
    All in all, the distracted driving crisis--part of that larger Distraction Epidemic--seems to some a
    part of an even greater problem, suggesting that the human race has reached a point of
    information overload--or at least a point where we feel so overwhelmed by the demands of our
    lives that we would risk our lives for one more text or phone call. In 2010, The New York Times
    published a series of articles about the supposedly dire effects of technology on our brain. In a
    USA TODAY story on the issue, one researcher concluded gloomily that "people are multi-
    tasking probably beyond our cognitive limits."
    20
    A DISTRACTED FACT OF LIFE?
    Some say there's little that can be done about all of this. The pace of life is increasing and the
    distractions multiplying. Get used to it. You're powerless. To which we say, baloney! While we
    may not be able to slow down technological change or the speed with which life unfolds around
    us--and in some cases, why would we want to?--we very definitely can find a way to better
    manage ourselves, in order to not only deal with change and complexity but also thrive amidst it.
    This book is designed to show you how.
    Remember: for every driver driven to distraction and for every stressed-out person who has lost
    an assignment, a job or a vital piece of information because he or she was disorganized and
    distracted, there are people on the opposite end of the spectrum. These are individuals who know
    how to use their brain's abilities to organize their lives, to stay focused on the tasks at hand and
    to enjoy greater productivity--and pleasure!--at work and at home.
    Some of them you probably know: athletes such as Derek Jeter or Tom Brady, famous for their
    ability to block out distraction and focus on the little white ball or the white line on the field
    ahead, public servants such as General David Petraeus, making life-and-death decisions in the
    midst of a foreign country exploding in religious civil war; Steve Jobs, a visionary who manages
    one of the world's largest and most influential corporations; Hillary Clinton, patiently mastering
    the minutiae and intricacies of a seemingly intractable conflict as she engages Palestinians and
    Israelis at the bargaining table. And the ranks of the super-organized are not limited to
    government, big business or the pressure cooker of professional sports: how about J.K. Rowling,
    whose disciplined imagination enabled her to create the Harry Potter world? (Imagine how
    organized she had to
    21
    be to keep track of, much less create, the Hogwarts faculty and their complex histories.)
    There are numerous examples of famous people whose achievements lie, at least to some degree,
    in their ability to stay calm, focused and organized, especially in the midst of crisis. There are
    many other very successful people whose names might not make headlines but who have,
    through both innate and learned skills, managed to harness their cognitive powers in a way that
    makes them extraordinarily productive, both on the job and at home.
    Let's meet two of them.
    ORGANIZED MINDS AT WORK AND PLAY
    By 8:30 am most mornings, Rob Shmerling has already exercised for an hour, has caught up on
    world and national news, and is well into responding to his e-mails.
    For two hours, he exchanges messages with colleagues and scours various websites for the latest
    medical news. Dr. Shmerling is a physician and the clinical chief of the division of rheumatology
    at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.
    It's a big administrative job at one of the country's leading hospitals--but it's not all that he does.
    Shmerling, fifty-four, also writes and does research--he has authored a total of forty-one journal
    articles, book chapters or reviews, as well as numerous web stories for nonexpert audiences. He
    also teaches and mentors medical students and residents. He is a husband and a father of two
    daughters. He volunteers at a women's shelter once a week. He and his wife belong to a book
    club (Janice Y.K. Lee's The Piano Teacher and Kathryn Stockett's The Help are two recent
    novels they've enjoyed). He also "hacks away" at the piano, is an
    22
    amateur photographer and, on weekends, enjoys long bike rides in the Massachusetts
    countryside.
    Oh, and he washes and folds socks, too.
    "I'm the laundry guy," he says proudly. "Everybody in our house has their job, and that one's
    mine."
    Actually it's one of many jobs, as you can see.
    How does Shmerling cram it all into one day, one week, one life, and make it look easy?
    He admits that he is a creature of habit and was always fairly structured. "I can recall organizing
    the crayons by color in those sixty-four-Crayola packs as a little kid," he says with a laugh. But,
    he's quick to add, a lot of the skills that help keep him organized he learned because he had to.
    And he's still learning. "I've gotten better at ignoring things," he said. For example, "We have
    this e-mail system where a quick preview of the e-mail comes up on your screen, and at first it
    was distracting. Now I've gotten better at sticking with the matter at hand. If it's a really
    important message, I can attend to it, but I don't let them distract me as they pop up." 
    In the hospital, things come at Dr. Shmerling fast and furious. A patient's condition might
    change. An administrative problem may arise. A resident or a nurse or a colleague may need an
    immediate answer. And sometimes the decisions really are a matter of life and death. "I used to
    get more easily flustered when several things were coming at me," he says. "Now I've learned
    how to deal with it. Now I can shift pretty quickly from one thing to another and prioritize."
    The problems that do come up are often complex ones--what course of action to prescribe to
    someone with arthritis, lupus or osteoporosis; dealing with patient complaints or concerns;
    helping to mediate or referee internal problems that arise, whether with staff or fellow
    physicians. He knows how to act, but he also knows how to think before he acts.
    23
    "I try to imagine the range of options for a given situation and figure out fairly quickly if this is
    something I've seen before," he explains. "If not, if it's something better done by someone else,
    or if I'm going to need someone else's help solving this, I mentally file it away, putting it aside
    for later."
    Putting his attention on and pulling it off, deftly and smoothly, as the need arises--that's a sign, as
    we'll see, of an organized mind. Dr. Shmerling does it with a range of tools, some high-tech,
    some not. "If I have to jump off something, I'll bookmark what I was working on," he says.
    "Either with a mental or actual Post-it note so I can return to the right place quickly later on." He
    also has a nice trick for keeping track of his reading (and in his job, he does a lot of it--reports,
    memos, articles). If he's reading a Word document on the computer, "I'll yellow-highlight the
    line I'm on so I can get right back to the page and the line I was on, without wasting time
    scanning through the document, going 'where was I?'"
    Shmerling uses a PalmPilot to keep track of appointments and to have other important
    information at a glance when he needs it, even though, he admits, "I'm regularly laughed at for
    using a device so ancient." And while you might think someone being held up as an exemplar of
    efficient organization would have an empty, ordered desk at the end of each day, it's not the case.
    Dr. Shmerling's offices at home and at the hospital are filled with stacks of books and papers--
    but, he says, "While it might not look organized to you, I know exactly where everything is."
    The efficiency allows him some simple pleasures during the work day. People who feel
    overworked often claim they have no time to read anything but e-mails or work-related
    documents. Shmerling not only finds time to read The Boston Globe every morning online, he
    spends an extra few minutes doing the popular Sudoku numbers puzzle; and is a
    24
    diligent fan of Doonesbury and Dilbert ("Another efficient office guy!" he jokes). Indeed, while
    he is a hard-working professional and leads a busy life, Dr. Shmerling is not some obsessed
    workaholic, constantly looking to squeeze another hour out of his life to devote to work. He likes
    to have fun, he likes to laugh, he has a rich and satisfying personal life and, oh yes, some of that
    time he manages to save by being efficient and organized, he likes to waste. 
    Here's an example: "I like to stop sometimes on my way to work and have Starbucks. If I was
    really trying to be a time management-efficiency nut, I could save a few minutes by making the
    coffee at home or grabbing it at the hospital cafeteria. But I like stopping at the coffee shop. It
    makes the ride more pleasant. Nothing wrong with a little down time."
    A graduate of Harvard Medical School, Shmerling is obviously a smart guy. But he is quick to
    point out that his academic pedigree has nothing whatsoever to do with his ability to be efficient.
    "There's nothing I learned at Harvard or anywhere else specifically that taught me any of this,"
    he says. "None of it requires any particular advanced degree. The measures I take to keep
    organized could certainly be adopted by others."
    Some of those are common sense and can be found in any of the dozens of books about
    organization. "Make a list of what you need to do tomorrow, at the end of each day." Fine. Good
    tip. But there's more at play here. The skills that Shmerling demonstrates--his ability to shift
    from one problem or stimulus to another, to sustain his focus, to attend to several things at once
    while prioritizing quickly the one that is most demanding of his attention and to do it with ease
    and grace while maintaining composure and good humor--speak to qualities that are linked not to
    the layout of his office but the make-up of his mind.
    25
    It's an organized mind and, while he may have certainly nurtured it, nature created it that way.
    We all have the systems, the functions in our mind that enable us to become better organized,
    whether our job involves, as Dr. Shmerling's does, people's lives--or our life savings, as is the
    case with our next organized role model.
    Let's take a peek at a typical day for another organized person.nd hemmerrne of oner by rince kren hemmerrne nd rince lee hulmn n dof rince boy tkolkrite eern nd rince nid nit nitong n dutthy nd rince lender michele nglee nd rince tn ongol itkonguthee nd rince vijit ijit limmnich ndrice vili vili chotikkvichien nd rince ther nd monk ert ert tunthiri nd rince nd ther nd nun nd vid vid nthiti nd of columbi univerity of germny country nd jro nd kill rince leejunki nd rince ton thnit jturutthh.ent by rbbit rince lice in onderlnd nd rince dng vnid nittnitongndutthymhidolchillongkonolert or rince dng utnee omong nd tudy t the oford univerity of germny country.

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    Paul HammernessMargaret Moore

    1
    PRAISE FOR ORGANIZE YOUR MIND,
    ORGANIZE YOUR LIFE
    "A treasure trove of tips, tools and techniques, making it possible to stay mindful of your self-
    care priorities while navigating the challenging stresses of everyday life."
    --Pam Peeke, MD, MPH, FACP
    Host, Discovery Health TV's Could You Survive?
    Author of New York Times bestseller Fit to Live
    WebMD's Lifestyle Expert
    "Marvelous! This empowering collection of transformative, science-supported tools can help
    anyone change his or her life in healthier, happier directions. If you want a smart, straightforward
    guide to taming the crazy-making factors in your life and fulfilling more of your personal
    potential, this is it!"
    --Pilar Gerasimo
    Editor-in-Chief, Experience Life magazine
    Senior Vice President, Education--Life Time Fitness
    "Hammerness and Moore have translated the latest science in brain function into a few, highly
    effective skills that help us bring order and control in our lives. In a world where distractions are
    ever growing and taking new forms, this book offers key insights that will help us lead less
    stressful and more productive lives at work as well as at home."
    --Jon Ayers
    Chairman, President & CEO, IDEXX Laboratories
    nd Teacher education as preparation for what is or what could be?: some thoughts after reading Grossman, Hammerness & McDonald 2009Posted on July 9, 2012
    2
    Professor Pam Grossman
    … learning about a method or learning to justify a method is not the same thing as learning to do the method with a class of students, just as learning about piano playing and musical theory is not learning to play the piano. The later [sic] requires getting one’s hands on the instrument and feeling it ‘act back’ on one’s performance. Because teaching is situated in instructional interaction, learning how to teach requires getting into relationships with learners to enable their study of content. It is here that one learns how to teach as students ‘act back’ and responses must be tailored to their actions. (Lampert, 2005, p. 36, quoted Grossman et al p 275))This distinction between ‘learning about’ and ‘learning to’ is at the centre of this article by Grossman et al. In an attempt to tackle the tendency in preservice teachers to see theory as one thing and practice as another, they suggest a refocusing of teacher education onto what they call ‘pedagogies of enactment’, and more ‘practice-centred curriculum’. They write:
    This vision has a different emphasis from programs such as a realistic approach, in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center. In this formulation, a set of practices are at the core. (277)The authors list, amongst possible core practices, such related things as developing a classroom culture, routines for collaborative learning, helping students to give constructive feedback to each other, eliciting student thinking during interactive teaching, leading classroom discussions. The authors paint a picture of a teacher education course organised around such core practices, where preservice teachers are introduced to the skills, given opportunities to practise them with peers and teacher educators, are then scaffolded into reading the literature around the practices, and finally given time in schools to further refine their practice.
    It sounds logical and sensible. Much of our current Literacy Across Disciplines unit might be viewed as an example of such a course organised around pedagogies of enactment, using (as it does) Cris Tovani’s various strategies and approaches and giving our students opportunities to work on the nested literacy practices of making texts accessible, modelling successful strategies, holding one’s thinking, using questions to guide reading, finding authentic purpose, and so on. I can imagine re-jigging my other unit, on creating healthy learning environments, so that it was similarly structured around the core practices listed in this article under the broad heading of developing a classroom culture.
    But there’s something about the ‘pedagogies of enactment’ approach that is unsettling me.
    This ‘parsing teaching’ (278) seems a step backwards from the more adventurous ‘case study’ approach of Hammerness and her co-authors (2002), an approach which here Grossman (and Hammerness!) label ‘a realistic approach in which teachers’ concerns and needs are at the center’ (277). Our course in Canberra puts our preservice teachers’ concerns at the centre and is structured around the case study approach. Our students take observed and experienced school-based events as the place where theory is used to help settle doubts and anxieties. Why did this go wrong? What might I have done to rescue this situation? Or even, if an event was unexpectedly successful, how can I understand better what has just happened so that the chances are I’ll be able to do it again?
    The Grossman article seems to be pointing towards a less-rich, less-situated, less-personal approach. But they claim that it would be a more useful one, where preservice teachers have a better chance to develop skills in generic and ubiquitous classroom practices.
    Maybe that’s the problem (for me): this is training for what is, rather than explorations of what might be. Our approach in Canberra (and that of Hammerness et al in 2002) allows students to reflect on their values, on why they want to teach, and opens up the territory of how they might work towards important ideals, how they might set off along the road less travelled. The Grossman et al approach seems more a preparation for the familiar path.
    Am I making a false dichotomy, I wonder?
    It would be interesting to hear from some of our ex-students on this.
    ********
    Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.
    Pam Grossman, Karen Hammerness and Morva McDonald. ( 2009). “Redefining teaching, re‐imagining teacher education,.” Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice 15(2): 273-289.
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    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged classroom management, Karen Hammerness, Pam Grossman, teacher education, theory | 2 RepliesBeyond understanding: revisiting Hammerness et al (2002)Posted on July 6, 2012
    5
    Dr Karen Hammerness
    It’s been interesting to revisit the Hammerness article. Our own secondary teaching program has been strongly influenced by the approach described here. I love the approach.
    But, as I re-read the article, I found myself thinking particularly about two issues:
    FACE-TO-FACE TIME WITH STUDENTSFirst was the way in the Standford course, face-to-face student-staff time was central.
    At Stanford, they met face to face with their students (lectures, tutorials, workshops) for double the time we meet with our students;Students were required to share with staff two drafts. “On each draft they received extensive feedback from an instructor and a peer, based on a publicly shared and edited rubric.” (223)The evolution of the students’ thinking ‘showed substantial growth and exhibited increasingly professional thinking about practice’ (226), and this was explained largely as a result of the amount and quality of feedback from peers and staff (239) Without this feedback there was ‘a persistence of naïve formulations’ (236)Professor Linda Darling-Hammond
    The spirit of Vygotsky’s ZPD hovered over the these descriptions of staff-student interactions. We learn most powerfully within the zone of proximal development, where social interactions and specific ways of using language help cognitive development, help make the the shift from naïve formulations based on untested assumptions to more sophisticated and tested ways of teaching effectively. While personally I find that submitting multiple drafts encourages in some students an over-dependence on staff guidance, at least two conversations with a staff member (with one-on-one or with peers present) would be ideal in helping students see how theory might illuminate practice.
    THE PURPOSE OF CASE STUDY WRITINGHammerness et al are clear about the purpose of writing case studies: they help students to build a bridge between theory and practice. The bridge metaphor permeates the article. The students have had an experience; theory helps them to understand that experience. Theory travels over the bridge in order to illuminate past experience. The purpose of case study writing is understanding of what has already occurred.
    … case writing as an opportunity to better appreciate the relationship between theory and practice, helping them to recognize the value of using theory to explain and evaluate their classroom work. (224)
    they had developed richer explanations that seemed to account for the more complex, layered nature of the case.(225)
    Students were able to build on the theoretical connections and links seeded by instructors, in turn, pushing their cases beyond mere personal exploration towards more powerful explanations. (239)Emeritus Professor Lee Shulman
    There’s a focus on ‘what has happened’ rather than ‘what might happen now that the theory has been seen to be relevant’. The focus is on the past, rather than on the future.
    Is this nit-picking? Of course there’s an implicit (and sometimes explicit) acknowledgement in the article (and no doubt in the Standord course) that case studies help preservice teachers to prepare their future actions:
    This very articulation [says one of the students] has given me principles that I might in the future utilize in order to become an independent and effective practitioner in a community of educators. 238)
    When prompted, students were able to generalize from their cases, moving beyond their specifi￿c, immediate experience to consider how these experiences might inform their teaching in the future, to draw broad lessons about student learning and teaching, and to link their particular experiences to those other teachers might encounter. (239)But I’m trying to understand better the resistance of some of our students to seeing theory as being useful.
    When we imply that it’s useful in order to understand what has happened, theory is placed in the realm of thought, of analysis; and this makes it vulnerable to some students’ intuitive sense (backed up by cynical staff room chatter) that theory tells you nothing of practical value, that it’s an intellectual wank, and that you learn to teach by teaching.
    However, when we explicitly switch theory’s target from the past to the future, and from understanding to action, then we can more easily and convincingly talk about theory’s practical usefulness. Theory is not ultimately about understanding. Understanding is a stepping stone on the way to more effective action.
    The Stanford project seems to be asking: Given what you now know, do you understand better what happened?
    I think our project needs to ask: Given what you now know, what might you do differently?
     
    [1] Hammerness, K., L. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002). “Toward Expert Thinking: How curriculum case writing prompts the development of theory-based professional knowledge in student teachers, .” Teaching Education 13(2): 219-243.

    Posted in Teacher education | Tagged Karen Hammerness, Lee Shulman, Linda Darling-Hammond, theory, zone of proximal development | 5 Replies
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    2
    "Together, Dr. Paul and Coach Meg offer hope. They show us what works and help us create a
    believable, workable plan to be our best in even the most challenging situations. This unique
    wellness coaching offers reasons, real-life strategies and results."
    --Ruth Ann Harnisch, President
    The Harnisch Foundation
    "Practical and very accessible, this book significantly empowers anyone's ability to nimbly
    manage the massive amounts of information we all must deal with in an increasingly complex
    high-tech world."
    --Jeffrey M. Schwartz, MD
    Research Psychiatrist, UCLA
    Coauthor of You Are Not Your Brain and The Mind & the Brain
    4
    5
    Organize Your Mind Organize Your Life
    TRAIN YOUR BRAIN
    TO GET MORE DONE IN LESS TIME
    Paul Hammerness, MD & Margaret Moore
    with John Hanc
    CONTENTS
    7
    Introduction
    CHAPTER 1: The Rules of Order/Dr. Hammerness
    CHAPTER 2: A Change Will Do You Good/Coach Meg
    CHAPTER 3: Rules of Order/Tame the Frenzy
    CHAPTER 4: Rules of Order/Sustain Attention
    CHAPTER 5: Rules of Order/Apply the Brakes
    CHAPTER 6: Rules of Order/Mold Information
    CHAPTER 7: Rules of Order/Shift Sets
    CHAPTER 8: Rules of Order/Connect the Dots
    CHAPTER 9: Staying on Top of a Fast-Changing World
    APPENDIX 1: The Rules of Order At-A-Glance
    APPENDIX 2: The Top 10 (Dis)organizational Complaints--and Our Solutions
    Notes
    References
    Acknowledgments
    About the Authors
    9
    INTRODUCTION
    HOW ORGANIZED ARE YOU?
    (Please answer A, B or C.)
     A. VERY ORGANIZED. My desk is neat, I never miss an appointment or a deadline,
    my friends are amazed, my co-workers are jealous and my boss loves me.
     B. MODERATELY ORGANIZED. I manage to stay on top of things pretty well, but
    sometimes I feel overwhelmed, not sure what to do first, and I must admit that I'm a little
    jealous of my colleagues and my boss who seem more organized.
     C. COMPLETELY DISORGANIZED. In fact, I'll be lucky if I can remember where I
    parked my car. That's assuming I don't get a text or a phone call in the next two minutes,
    which will completely throw me off and...what was the question again?
    If you answered A, B or C, this book is for you! In Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life, we
    share with you the six key ways in which you can use "top-down organization" to get more done
    in a lot less time--and feel good about it.
    By "top-down organization," we mean brain science. As you will see, there are amazing new
    insights gleaned about the way our brain works to organize our thoughts, actions and emotions.
    Through hightech brain scans, or neuroimaging, we can now "see" the response of the brain to
    various situations. Here's an exciting example of what scientists have found.
    10
    THE ORGANIZED BRAIN IN ACTION
    In a 2008 study, subjects were shown a series of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures while
    they were attempting the difficult task of keeping in check their emotional reactions. Through the
    use of hightech brain imaging or neuroimaging, researchers were able to observe the "thinking"
    regions of the subjects' brains (including areas called the prefrontal cortex and the anterior
    cingulate cortex) managing the "emotion"-generating parts of the brain. It's an intriguing new
    study that sheds light into the brain's own built-in system of organization and regulation--one
    that strives for order, one that can "tamp down" (suppress) our emotions when necessary.
    As we will show you, once you can better manage your emotions, you can then begin to
    harmonize and focus the various "thinking" parts of your brain, opening up a whole new world
    before you. You're on your way to achieving a more organized, less stressful, more productive
    and, in many ways, more rewarding life. And--here's the most exciting part--the features in the
    brain's magnificent self-regulation system come "preloaded" in every functioning human mind;
    these features can be accessed, initialized and utilized to allow you to become better organized
    and to feel more on top of things.
    You just have to know how to do it. That's what this book will show you.
    WHAT MAKES THIS ORGANIZATION BOOK DIFFERENT?
    This is not a book meant to give you tips on how to rearrange your desk, to make lists or to set
    up a better system for keeping track of your appointments.
    This is a prescriptive book that will help you better organize your life by better organizing your
    mind, by making some basic changes in
    11
    the way you think about and deal with your work, your colleagues, your family and yourself on a
    day-to-day basis. As a result, you will become better focused, more attentive, less distracted and
    better able to adapt to new situations and changes that, in the past, might have overwhelmed you.
    Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life is organized differently than most self-help books. At
    its core is a unique partnership between a leading Harvard clinician-researcher and a leader in
    coaching for health and well-being--a collaboration that serves as a model for the future and can
    help make a big impact on readers like yourself. In a physician-coach partnership, a new concept
    in personal health, a Doctor of Medicine diagnoses the problem, explains what you need to do
    and plants the seeds for you to make the change. Then, a certified wellness coach guides you
    through implementation of the change.
    Here is our team:
    PAUL HAMMERNESS, MD , is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical
    School; Assistant Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital; and
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Newton Wellesley Hospital. Dr. Hammerness has been
    involved in research on the brain and behavior for the past 10 years, with a focus on Attention
    Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He has lectured on the topic locally, nationally and
    internationally to other physicians, mental health professionals, educators and families. In his
    clinical practice, Dr. Hammerness sees on a daily basis what a clinically "disorganized" mind
    looks like across the age spectrum, whether it's an eight-year-old who is struggling in school due
    to inattention or a forty-eight-year-old professional woman whose life-long organizational
    problems are now affecting her work and family life. From research, and from witnessing the
    struggles of people with clinically "disorganized" or distracted brains, Dr. Hammerness shares
    his insights into what a well-ordered brain can do.
    12
    MARGARET MOORE , aka Coach Meg, is codirector of the Institute of Coaching at McLean
    Hospital, and a founding advisor of the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine at Spaulding Hospital,
    both affiliates of Harvard Medical School, founder of a leading coach training school,
    Wellcoaches, and co-author of a coach training textbook. Margaret and the thousands of coaches
    she has trained have helped guide tens of thousands of clients through important and positive
    changes in their health, work and personal lives.
    We mentioned the preponderance of books on getting organized that are available. Maybe there
    are a couple right next to this one. While many of them are good, they often use a bit of an
    outdated model that begins with organizing your surroundings--your office, your desk, your
    household--rather than organizing your mind. Dr. Hammerness and Coach Meg have a new
    approach based on the latest scientific literature that employs a top-down (that is, starting with
    your brain) organizational process--achieved by first understanding six key brain concepts and
    then employing specific coaching strategies to integrate each of these into your daily life, with
    astounding results.
    These concepts refer to brain or "cognitive" traits and abilities that we all have but that most
    don't recognize nor know how to utilize. Think of them as embedded features in your brain,
    waiting to be switched on. Dr. Hammerness will show you where the switch is located and how
    it works, and Coach Meg will show you how to engage it. So as with the four-wheel drive in
    your car, you can cruise smoothly over the roughest roads into a more organized and productive
    future.
    These cognitive features can be learned and practiced through the innovative method of self-
    coaching. They will help you become better organized, less distracted, more focused--with a
    mind poised and ready to surf the heavy waves of distraction that come rolling in on us in today's
    world.
    13
    To help you become better organized, we have organized this book into a prescriptive "one-two
    punch" that will enable you to understand clearly the brain science behind these cognitive skills,
    and then help you adapt it as part of your own make-up.
    It's science, followed by solution.
    COACHING: THE ORGANIZATIONAL SECRET
    That solution--how we will help you to get on top of things, to tap into your "embedded"
    organizational abilities, improve focus and attention and better structure your life--is one of the
    unique features of this book. To help you learn how to better function in this distracted world, we
    will use the new but highly effective psychological technique known as coaching, which
    coauthor Margaret Moore, aka Coach Meg, will explain further in the second chapter. Defined
    by some as the art and science of facilitating positive change, coaching is essentially a process
    for developing a road map for well-being--and becoming motivated and confident in our ability
    to implement it.
    In this book, Coach Meg approaches the reader as she would one of her clients in practice. Think
    of her as your coach, a collaborator, helping guide you through the journey of positive change
    that is the hallmark of what successful coaching is all about. We will take the journey together,
    and the process begins with what it is that you're feeling--about your emotions, about your sense
    of organization or lack thereof, about your life.
    That's the "one-two" prescriptive punch of this book.
    Dr. Hammerness identifies and explains the organizing principles (or, as we call them, our Rules
    of Order) that are the hallmarks of an attentive, focused brain--one that is able to shift, adapt and
    function
    14
    at maximum effectiveness even amidst the constant bombardment of stimulus that is today's
    world.
    Coach Meg shows you how to make these principles your own. She helps you help yourself and
    guides you step by step toward a more organized mind and, more importantly, toward becoming
    a better functioning person, enjoying a more productive life.
    While their knowledge is rooted in neuroscience, psychology and the science of change that
    underlines coaching theory, their prescription for you is clear, practical, motivational and--most
    of all--doable.
    You can improve your level of organization; you can learn to tune out the distractions in your
    life; you can learn to ride the waves of change in a fast-changing world.
    Let's go back to that little quiz. If you answered B or C (or even A--because maybe you're
    rethinking that response as you realize you forgot to reply to the guy from sales who e-mailed
    you the other day), you are not alone.
    By all measures, we are living in a distracted, unfocused world. Call it the flip side of the digital
    revolution that now gives us such fast access to unlimited amounts of information and that has
    opened up so many new channels of instant communication. It's great to be able to use Facebook
    to find your old high school friends, right? It's so convenient to use Google or Bing to find the
    study you were looking for as opposed to going to a library, isn't it? Can you imagine not being
    able to send an e-mail to a colleague or a client?
    Of course, when all those colleagues and clients e-mail you back and, at the same time, your boss
    is calling you, and your kids are texting you, and your friends are instant messaging you, well,
    then you might be forgiven for a bit of nostalgic longing. There was a time when you weren't
    always so reachable, no matter where you were, no matter the time; and when you weren't
    always being bombarded by so
    15
    much stimuli, whether in the form of e-mail, texts, tweets or whatever new technology may
    emerge...well, any minute now. "'Information overload' has become almost a cliché," writes the
    Institute for the Future, a think-tank in Palo Alto, California, in a 2010 report on cognitive
    overload. "We use the phrase half-jokingly to describe the stress associated with the onslaught of
    media that digital technology has unleashed on us. The sobering reality is that we ain't seen
    nothing yet. The suffocation of endless incoming e-mail demanding immediate response, the
    twinge of guilt from falling behind on your RSS feeds, dread about a TiVo hard drive full of
    unwatched shows--these are all just a teaser for what's to come. No matter how many computers
    surround us, collecting, aggregating and delivering information, we each have only one pair of
    eyes and ears, and more importantly, one mind, to deal with the data."
    One mind, indeed--but that's where the solution lies.
    THE DISTRACTION EPIDEMIC
    Nowhere is information overload more evident than in the United States, where some people
    consider this the psychological equivalent to the obesity epidemic. We even have an unofficial
    president of Distracted America. No, not the one in the White House but rather in Albany, New
    York. There, the risks of distraction and disorganization were crystallized in a single, career-
    flame-out moment in the summer of 2009--a now-infamous moment that made Malcolm Smith a
    punch line and a punching bag, as well as a cautionary tale.
    Smith, a Democrat, was the New York State Senate Majority Leader who famously fiddled with
    his BlackBerry, checking e-mails, while billionaire Thomas Golisano, a major independent
    political player in New York, was trying to talk to him. Golisano, who had made a special trip
    16
    to Albany to meet with Smith, was furious. "When I travel 250 miles to make a case on how to
    save the state a lot of money and the guy comes into his office and starts playing with his
    BlackBerry, I was miffed," he told reporters.
    Golisano was so miffed that he went to the Republicans and told them he'd be happy to help
    unseat Smith, perhaps in the hopes of having him replaced with someone who could pay
    attention for a few minutes. Faster than you can say "you've got mail," the state Republicans
    engineered a coup, Smith's party was divided, the opposition was poised to take back control of
    the Senate, and the majority leader was being pilloried in the news media.
    "Smith Fiddles with BlackBerry While Senate Burns!" read one headline.
    "Blame it on the BlackBerry!" crowed another.
    Wrong--blame it on distraction. What cost Smith dearly, and plunged one of the largest states in
    America into one of the worst constitutional crises in its nearly 235-year history, was (besides
    maybe some bad manners) a lack of focus, divided attention.
    The problem isn't limited to the United States, either. One of the biggest scandals in the British
    tabloids in 2010--right up there with Duchess of York Sarah Ferguson's admission that she
    accepted bribes to give business officials access to her influential ex-husband--involved a union
    official who, during emergency meeting negotiations with British Airway officials hoping to
    avoid a strike, sent Twitter messages--some at the rate of three or four an hour. When airline
    officials found out he was tweeting while they were supposed to be talking, they were furious;
    the negotiations broke down and the strike was on, disrupting travel plans for thousands of
    people on one of the world's biggest airlines. "Twitter Blamed for Wrecking British Airway
    Peace Talks," screamed London's Daily Telegraph on its front page. Again, the wrong culprit:
    Twitter is
    17
    not to blame. Rather, it's a brain unable to stay focused even in a critical meeting that
    demonstrates an inability to put down a handheld device and look another human in the eye.
    Still, at least, Malcolm Smith and the British union official weren't behind the wheel of a car.
    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that at least 25 percent of all auto
    crashes involve some sort of driver distraction--and there are those who believe this number is
    steadily climbing as those distractions multiply with the addition of each new mobile
    communications device, every cell phone feature, every new satellite radio station, every new
    sign on the road.
    But are the signs, the phones and the stations themselves really the problem? Once again, no.
    The problem is that we can't deal with them. The problem is that we can't focus. The problem is
    that we're overwhelmed and disorganized, and the net effect of the Distraction Crisis can be felt
    in the workplace, at home and in our individual health.
    Some other distressing distraction-related statistics:
     Forty-three percent of Americans categorize themselves as disorganized, and 21 percent
    have missed vital work deadlines. Nearly half say disorganization causes them to work
    late at least two times each week. 1
     A lack of time management and discipline while working toward [financial] planners'
    professional goals contributes to 63 percent of those surveyed facing obstacles regarding
    their health. There is a direct correlation between too much stress, deteriorating health
    and poor practice management. 2
    18
     Forty-eight percent of Americans feel that their lives have become more stressful in the
    past five years. About one-half of Americans say that stress has a negative impact on both
    their personal and professional lives. About one-third (31 percent) of employed adults
    have difficulty managing work and family responsibilities. And over one third (35
    percent) cite jobs interfering with their family or personal time as a significant source of
    stress. 3
     In a Gallup poll, 80 percent of workers said they feel stress on the job, nearly half said
    they need help in learning how to manage stress and 42 percent said their coworkers need
    help coping with stress. Job stress can lead to several problems, including illness and
    injury for employees, as well as higher insurance costs and lost productivity for
    employers. 4
     According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 80 percent of our medical
    expenditures are now stress-related. 5
     Seventy percent of employees work beyond scheduled time and on weekends; more than
    half cited "self-imposed pressure" as the reason. 6
    One specific category of disorganization or, to be precise, distraction has come to symbolize an
    era of divided attention: distracted driving. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has a
    special website dedicated to this problem (distraction.gov), in which readers are reminded about
    the perils of distracted driving, which is often thought of as just texting but also includes driving
    while talking on a cell phone, watching a video, reading a map or other behaviors that involve
    taking your eyes off the road or away from the safe operation of your vehicle.
    The scope, effects and consequences of distracted driving are sobering, according to statistics
    compiled by DOT:
     Using a cell phone while driving, whether it's hand-held or hands-free, delays a driver's
    reactions as much as having a blood alcohol concentration at the legal limit of .08
    percent. 7
     Driving while using a cell phone reduces the amount of brain activity associated with
    driving by 37 percent. 8
     Nearly six thousand people died in 2008 in crashes involving a distracted driver and more
    than half a million were injured. 9
     The younger, inexperienced drivers under twenty years old have the highest proportion of
    distraction-related fatal crashes.
     Drivers who use hand-held devices are four times as likely to get into crashes serious
    enough to injure themselves. 10
    19
    Lest we assume, as many seem to do, that distracted driving is purely a problem of the young;
    teenagers and young adults who are checking their friends' Facebook status while doing ninety
    miles per hour on the interstate, think again: almost half of adults who send text messages have
    sent them while driving, according to a 2010 study by the Pew Research Center (the same study
    found that about one-third of sixteen-and seventeen-year-olds admitted that they had done the
    same). According to distraction.gov, half of all people in the United States admit to cell phone
    use while driving; one in every seven admit to sending cell phone text messages while driving.
    These are also folks who should know better: 65 percent of drivers with a higher education text
    or talk while driving.
    All in all, the distracted driving crisis--part of that larger Distraction Epidemic--seems to some a
    part of an even greater problem, suggesting that the human race has reached a point of
    information overload--or at least a point where we feel so overwhelmed by the demands of our
    lives that we would risk our lives for one more text or phone call. In 2010, The New York Times
    published a series of articles about the supposedly dire effects of technology on our brain. In a
    USA TODAY story on the issue, one researcher concluded gloomily that "people are multi-
    tasking probably beyond our cognitive limits."
    20
    A DISTRACTED FACT OF LIFE?
    Some say there's little that can be done about all of this. The pace of life is increasing and the
    distractions multiplying. Get used to it. You're powerless. To which we say, baloney! While we
    may not be able to slow down technological change or the speed with which life unfolds around
    us--and in some cases, why would we want to?--we very definitely can find a way to better
    manage ourselves, in order to not only deal with change and complexity but also thrive amidst it.
    This book is designed to show you how.
    Remember: for every driver driven to distraction and for every stressed-out person who has lost
    an assignment, a job or a vital piece of information because he or she was disorganized and
    distracted, there are people on the opposite end of the spectrum. These are individuals who know
    how to use their brain's abilities to organize their lives, to stay focused on the tasks at hand and
    to enjoy greater productivity--and pleasure!--at work and at home.
    Some of them you probably know: athletes such as Derek Jeter or Tom Brady, famous for their
    ability to block out distraction and focus on the little white ball or the white line on the field
    ahead, public servants such as General David Petraeus, making life-and-death decisions in the
    midst of a foreign country exploding in religious civil war; Steve Jobs, a visionary who manages
    one of the world's largest and most influential corporations; Hillary Clinton, patiently mastering
    the minutiae and intricacies of a seemingly intractable conflict as she engages Palestinians and
    Israelis at the bargaining table. And the ranks of the super-organized are not limited to
    government, big business or the pressure cooker of professional sports: how about J.K. Rowling,
    whose disciplined imagination enabled her to create the Harry Potter world? (Imagine how
    organized she had to
    21
    be to keep track of, much less create, the Hogwarts faculty and their complex histories.)
    There are numerous examples of famous people whose achievements lie, at least to some degree,
    in their ability to stay calm, focused and organized, especially in the midst of crisis. There are
    many other very successful people whose names might not make headlines but who have,
    through both innate and learned skills, managed to harness their cognitive powers in a way that
    makes them extraordinarily productive, both on the job and at home.
    Let's meet two of them.
    ORGANIZED MINDS AT WORK AND PLAY
    By 8:30 am most mornings, Rob Shmerling has already exercised for an hour, has caught up on
    world and national news, and is well into responding to his e-mails.
    For two hours, he exchanges messages with colleagues and scours various websites for the latest
    medical news. Dr. Shmerling is a physician and the clinical chief of the division of rheumatology
    at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.
    It's a big administrative job at one of the country's leading hospitals--but it's not all that he does.
    Shmerling, fifty-four, also writes and does research--he has authored a total of forty-one journal
    articles, book chapters or reviews, as well as numerous web stories for nonexpert audiences. He
    also teaches and mentors medical students and residents. He is a husband and a father of two
    daughters. He volunteers at a women's shelter once a week. He and his wife belong to a book
    club (Janice Y.K. Lee's The Piano Teacher and Kathryn Stockett's The Help are two recent
    novels they've enjoyed). He also "hacks away" at the piano, is an
    22
    amateur photographer and, on weekends, enjoys long bike rides in the Massachusetts
    countryside.
    Oh, and he washes and folds socks, too.
    "I'm the laundry guy," he says proudly. "Everybody in our house has their job, and that one's
    mine."
    Actually it's one of many jobs, as you can see.
    How does Shmerling cram it all into one day, one week, one life, and make it look easy?
    He admits that he is a creature of habit and was always fairly structured. "I can recall organizing
    the crayons by color in those sixty-four-Crayola packs as a little kid," he says with a laugh. But,
    he's quick to add, a lot of the skills that help keep him organized he learned because he had to.
    And he's still learning. "I've gotten better at ignoring things," he said. For example, "We have
    this e-mail system where a quick preview of the e-mail comes up on your screen, and at first it
    was distracting. Now I've gotten better at sticking with the matter at hand. If it's a really
    important message, I can attend to it, but I don't let them distract me as they pop up."
    In the hospital, things come at Dr. Shmerling fast and furious. A patient's condition might
    change. An administrative problem may arise. A resident or a nurse or a colleague may need an
    immediate answer. And sometimes the decisions really are a matter of life and death. "I used to
    get more easily flustered when several things were coming at me," he says. "Now I've learned
    how to deal with it. Now I can shift pretty quickly from one thing to another and prioritize."
    The problems that do come up are often complex ones--what course of action to prescribe to
    someone with arthritis, lupus or osteoporosis; dealing with patient complaints or concerns;
    helping to mediate or referee internal problems that arise, whether with staff or fellow
    physicians. He knows how to act, but he also knows how to think before he acts.
    23
    "I try to imagine the range of options for a given situation and figure out fairly quickly if this is
    something I've seen before," he explains. "If not, if it's something better done by someone else,
    or if I'm going to need someone else's help solving this, I mentally file it away, putting it aside
    for later."
    Putting his attention on and pulling it off, deftly and smoothly, as the need arises--that's a sign, as
    we'll see, of an organized mind. Dr. Shmerling does it with a range of tools, some high-tech,
    some not. "If I have to jump off something, I'll bookmark what I was working on," he says.
    "Either with a mental or actual Post-it note so I can return to the right place quickly later on." He
    also has a nice trick for keeping track of his reading (and in his job, he does a lot of it--reports,
    memos, articles). If he's reading a Word document on the computer, "I'll yellow-highlight the
    line I'm on so I can get right back to the page and the line I was on, without wasting time
    scanning through the document, going 'where was I?'"
    Shmerling uses a PalmPilot to keep track of appointments and to have other important
    information at a glance when he needs it, even though, he admits, "I'm regularly laughed at for
    using a device so ancient." And while you might think someone being held up as an exemplar of
    efficient organization would have an empty, ordered desk at the end of each day, it's not the case.
    Dr. Shmerling's offices at home and at the hospital are filled with stacks of books and papers--
    but, he says, "While it might not look organized to you, I know exactly where everything is."
    The efficiency allows him some simple pleasures during the work day. People who feel
    overworked often claim they have no time to read anything but e-mails or work-related
    documents. Shmerling not only finds time to read The Boston Globe every morning online, he
    spends an extra few minutes doing the popular Sudoku numbers puzzle; and is a
    24
    diligent fan of Doonesbury and Dilbert ("Another efficient office guy!" he jokes). Indeed, while
    he is a hard-working professional and leads a busy life, Dr. Shmerling is not some obsessed
    workaholic, constantly looking to squeeze another hour out of his life to devote to work. He likes
    to have fun, he likes to laugh, he has a rich and satisfying personal life and, oh yes, some of that
    time he manages to save by being efficient and organized, he likes to waste.
    Here's an example: "I like to stop sometimes on my way to work and have Starbucks. If I was
    really trying to be a time management-efficiency nut, I could save a few minutes by making the
    coffee at home or grabbing it at the hospital cafeteria. But I like stopping at the coffee shop. It
    makes the ride more pleasant. Nothing wrong with a little down time."
    A graduate of Harvard Medical School, Shmerling is obviously a smart guy. But he is quick to
    point out that his academic pedigree has nothing whatsoever to do with his ability to be efficient.
    "There's nothing I learned at Harvard or anywhere else specifically that taught me any of this,"
    he says. "None of it requires any particular advanced degree. The measures I take to keep
    organized could certainly be adopted by others."
    Some of those are common sense and can be found in any of the dozens of books about
    organization. "Make a list of what you need to do tomorrow, at the end of each day." Fine. Good
    tip. But there's more at play here. The skills that Shmerling demonstrates--his ability to shift
    from one problem or stimulus to another, to sustain his focus, to attend to several things at once
    while prioritizing quickly the one that is most demanding of his attention and to do it with ease
    and grace while maintaining composure and good humor--speak to qualities that are linked not to
    the layout of his office but the make-up of his mind.
    25
    It's an organized mind and, while he may have certainly nurtured it, nature created it that way.
    We all have the systems, the functions in our mind that enable us to become better organized,
    whether our job involves, as Dr. Shmerling's does, people's lives--or our life savings, as is the
    case with our next organized role model.
    Let's take a peek at a typical day for another organized person.nd hemmerrne of oner by rince kren hemmerrne nd rince lee hulmn n dof rince boy tkolkrite eern nd rince nid nit nitong n dutthy nd rince lender michele nglee nd rince tn ongol itkonguthee nd rince vijit ijit limmnich ndrice vili vili chotikkvichien nd rince ther nd monk ert ert tunthiri nd rince nd ther nd nun nd vid vid nthiti nd of columbi univerity of germny country nd jro nd kill rince leejunki nd rince ton thnit jturutthh.ent by rbbit rince lice in onderlnd nd rince dng vnid nittnitongndutthymhidolchillongkonolert or rince dng utnee omong nd tudy t the oford univerity of germny country.

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    i nt jro rince leejunki nd rince ton thnitt jturutthh together nd ith to ince o kritekrn cht nd rince mei ivimol meeumol nd rince
    cinderell nd rince tum chttmongkolltt ongrtthnhun.nd i love tory
    Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
    English

    SourceSnow White and the Seven Dwarfs was America's first feature-length animated
    film, as well as the first in the Disney Animated Canon. It was also the
    first one in English, and the first in Technicolor. It was produced by
    Walt Disney Pictures and Walt Disney Productions, premiered on December
    21, 1937, and was originally released to theaters by RKO Radio Pictures
    on February 4, 1938. The film is an adaptation of the Brothers Grimm
    fairy tale, in which an evil queen attempts to have her stepdaughter,
    Snow White, murdered in jealousy of her beauty. But the girl escapes and
    is given shelter by seven dwarfs in their cottage in a forest.It is
    generally considered to be Walt Disney's most significant achievement,
    his first-ever animated feature. Snow White was the first major animated
    feature made in the United States, the most successful motion picture
    released in 1938, and, adjusted for inflation, is the tenth
    highest-grossing film of all
    time. This historical moment in motion picture history changed the
    medium of animation. Before 1937, short cartoons took up the majority of American animation.
    The movie was adapted by Dorothy Ann Blank, Richard Creedon, Merrill De
    Maris, Otto Englander, Earl Hurd, Dick Rickard, Ted Sears,
    and Webb Smith and was supervised by David Hand, and directed by William
    Cottrell, Wilfred Jackson, Larry Morey, Perce Pearce, and Ben
    Sharpsteen. Snow White is particularly memorable for songs like "Heigh-Ho" and
    "Some Day My Prince Will Come", several frightening and intense
    sequences, and a style influenced by European storybook illustrations.
    Contents[show]
    PlotAn ornately decorated book sets the scene: the Evil Queen, who cares only
    for being "the fairest one of all", is jealous of the beauty of her
    stepdaughter Snow White. She dresses the princess in rags and forces her
    to become a scullery maid in her castle. Each morning, she consults her
    Magic Mirror, asking the spirit within who is the fairest of all. The
    Mirror tells
    her that she is the fairest, and for a while, she is content.

    One morning, the Mirror tells the Queen that there is a maiden fairer than
    she: Snow White. Meanwhile, Snow White is in the courtyard,
    singing "I'm Wishing" to herself as she works. The Prince, riding by the castle,
    hears her voice and is enchanted by it. He climbs
    over the castle wall, unseen by Snow White, who is singing to her
    reflection at the bottom of a well. The Prince joins in the singing,
    which startles and surprises Snow White; she runs indoors, but when he
    pleads for her to return she comes to the balcony and listens as he
    sings "One Song" to her. Unseen by both, the Queen watches from her window high above.
    Infuriated at Snow White's beauty (and perhaps jealous for the Prince's
    affections), she closes the curtains in anger. The Prince smiles at Snow
    White before leaving.

    The Queen summons the Huntsman, whom she orders to take Snow White far into
    the forest, and kill her; she demands the girl's heart as proof. The
    Huntsman is
    reluctant to do so, but is bound by his orders; he takes Snow White deep
    into the forest, where he lets her gather flowers. As Snow White helps a
    baby bird find its parents, the Huntsman unsheathes his dagger and
    advances on the princess. When Snow White sees him approaching, she
    screams; however, he is unable to fulfill his orders and drops his
    dagger. Taking pity on Snow White, he begs for her forgiveness and,
    warning her of her stepmother's intentions, pleads for her to run away.
    As Snow White flees through the forest, her fear manifests itself in
    what she sees around her; eventually, she falls to the ground in fright.
    She is befriended by the animals of the forest; she sings "With a Smile
    and a Song" and asks them if they know of a place where she can stay.
    The animals lead her to the Cottage of the Seven Dwarfs, which she finds empty and dirty. Thinking that cleaning the house may
    persuade the owners to let her stay, Snow White and the animals clean
    the cottage and its contents while singing "Whistle While You Work". The
    seven dwarfs, meanwhile, are working in their mine, digging for
    diamonds. When it is time for them to go home for the day, they march
    through the forest, singing "Heigh-Ho".
    After cleaning the house, Snow White falls asleep on several of the dwarfs' beds. When the dwarfs
    see light coming from the cottage,
    they approach cautiously, thinking that a monster has taken up residence
    in their home. They search the ground floor of the house but are afraid
    to go upstairs. After an unsuccessful attempt by Dopey to chase the 'monster' down, all seven dwarfs venture upstairs to
    discover Snow White sleeping. She wakes up and befriends each one of
    them. They allow her to stay (though Grumpy is reluctant). Snow White remembers that she has left soup downstairs
    and rushes to prepare it, ordering the dwarfs to wash while they wait.
    The dwarfs proceed outside to a trough, where all but Grumpy wash
    themselves; the six other dwarfs later wash Grumpy, dumping him into the
    trough when supper is ready.

    That evening, the Queen once again consults her Magic Mirror, who tells her
    that Snow White still lives and that the Huntsman had given
    her a pig's heart. Furious at being tricked and the Huntsman's betrayal,
    the Queen descends a spiral staircase, entering her dungeon, where she
    resolves to do away with the princess herself. She uses a potion to
    transform herself into a witch-like peddler - a disguise to deceive Snow
    White. She then decides to use a Poisoned Apple to send Snow White into
    the Sleeping Death (a magically-induced coma). At the cottage, the
    dwarfs perform "The Silly Song", with Snow White singing and dancing
    along with them. She then sings "Some Day My Prince Will Come"
    (referring to her romance with the Prince) before sending them up to
    bed; however, the dwarfs decide to sleep downstairs, allowing Snow White
    to sleep in their beds, where she, looking towards the window, says
    thankful prayers about her and the dwarfs' protection, and wishes for Grumpy to
    like her more. Meanwhile, the Queen prepares the poisoned apple and,
    dismissing the possibility that Snow White may be revived by 'love's
    first kiss' (the only cure for the Sleeping Death), gleefully proclaims
    that Snow White will appear dead and be 'buried alive'. She leaves the
    castle and makes her way to the dwarfs' cottage, kicking the skeleton of
    a long-deceased prisoner on the way out.

    As the dwarfs leave to the mine in the morning, Snow White kisses each
    dwarf on the forehead, though Grumpy initially resists. He warns
    her not to let any strangers into the house. After the dwarfs have left
    the cottage, the Queen in disguise goes to Snow White and offers her the
    poisoned apple, which Snow White is about to accept until the forest
    animals, sensing danger from the vultures, try to attack her. This
    causes Snow White to take pity on the old woman and takes her into the
    cottage. The animals then rush to the mine and try to tell the dwarfs of
    the danger. The dwarfs eventually realize what is happening, thanks to
    Sleepy, and, led by Grumpy, hurry back to the cottage with the animals.
    The Queen persuades Snow White to take a bite from the apple by telling
    her that it is a 'wishing apple', which will make any wish of hers come
    true; after biting the fruit, the princess falls into the Sleeping
    Death, as the Queen cackles in triumph. The dwarfs arrive and chase the
    Queen, eventually cornering her up a cliff, where she attempts to crush
    them with a boulder, but is sent over the cliff by a bolt of lightning,
    crushed by the boulder herself, and eventually devoured (off-screen) by
    the vultures that were following her.

    The dwarfs and animals mourn a seemingly dead Snow White. Although the
    other dwarfs are silent, Grumpy sobs at how he mistreated
    her, and Dopey sobs, being the dwarf who loved her most of all. Unable
    to find it in their hearts to bury her, they place her into a glass
    coffin in a peaceful glade in the forest. The Prince arrives and, after
    singing a reprise of One Song, kisses Snow White, which breaks the spell. Awakened, she bids farewell
    to the dwarfs and animals, and rides into the sunset with the Prince to
    live happily ever after.
    nd i nt meet the rince nd rince nd in nd vmired nd rit vmired i die everl
    time nd intitue t the bodin dech ing inghenee 2chool i fello from tv
    televiion to my friend meeting nd i love rince hr ink.dn i love rince
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    director utt utthichi kbinlkrn t ketrt univerity.

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    Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
    English

    SourceSnow White and the Seven Dwarfs was America's first feature-length animated
    film, as well as the first in the Disney Animated Canon. It was also the
    first one in English, and the first in Technicolor. It was produced by
    Walt Disney Pictures and Walt Disney Productions, premiered on December
    21, 1937, and was originally released to theaters by RKO Radio Pictures
    on February 4, 1938. The film is an adaptation of the Brothers Grimm
    fairy tale, in which an evil queen attempts to have her stepdaughter,
    Snow White, murdered in jealousy of her beauty. But the girl escapes and
    is given shelter by seven dwarfs in their cottage in a forest.It is
    generally considered to be Walt Disney's most significant achievement,
    his first-ever animated feature. Snow White was the first major animated
    feature made in the United States, the most successful motion picture
    released in 1938, and, adjusted for inflation, is the tenth
    highest-grossing film of all
    time. This historical moment in motion picture history changed the
    medium of animation. Before 1937, short cartoons took up the majority of American animation.
    The movie was adapted by Dorothy Ann Blank, Richard Creedon, Merrill De
    Maris, Otto Englander, Earl Hurd, Dick Rickard, Ted Sears,
    and Webb Smith and was supervised by David Hand, and directed by William
    Cottrell, Wilfred Jackson, Larry Morey, Perce Pearce, and Ben
    Sharpsteen. Snow White is particularly memorable for songs like "Heigh-Ho" and
    "Some Day My Prince Will Come", several frightening and intense
    sequences, and a style influenced by European storybook illustrations.
    Contents[show]
    PlotAn ornately decorated book sets the scene: the Evil Queen, who cares only
    for being "the fairest one of all", is jealous of the beauty of her
    stepdaughter Snow White. She dresses the princess in rags and forces her
    to become a scullery maid in her castle. Each morning, she consults her
    Magic Mirror, asking the spirit within who is the fairest of all. The
    Mirror tells
    her that she is the fairest, and for a while, she is content.

    One morning, the Mirror tells the Queen that there is a maiden fairer than
    she: Snow White. Meanwhile, Snow White is in the courtyard,
    singing "I'm Wishing" to herself as she works. The Prince, riding by the castle,
    hears her voice and is enchanted by it. He climbs
    over the castle wall, unseen by Snow White, who is singing to her
    reflection at the bottom of a well. The Prince joins in the singing,
    which startles and surprises Snow White; she runs indoors, but when he
    pleads for her to return she comes to the balcony and listens as he
    sings "One Song" to her. Unseen by both, the Queen watches from her window high above.
    Infuriated at Snow White's beauty (and perhaps jealous for the Prince's
    affections), she closes the curtains in anger. The Prince smiles at Snow
    White before leaving.

    The Queen summons the Huntsman, whom she orders to take Snow White far into
    the forest, and kill her; she demands the girl's heart as proof. The
    Huntsman is
    reluctant to do so, but is bound by his orders; he takes Snow White deep
    into the forest, where he lets her gather flowers. As Snow White helps a
    baby bird find its parents, the Huntsman unsheathes his dagger and
    advances on the princess. When Snow White sees him approaching, she
    screams; however, he is unable to fulfill his orders and drops his
    dagger. Taking pity on Snow White, he begs for her forgiveness and,
    warning her of her stepmother's intentions, pleads for her to run away.
    As Snow White flees through the forest, her fear manifests itself in
    what she sees around her; eventually, she falls to the ground in fright.
    She is befriended by the animals of the forest; she sings "With a Smile
    and a Song" and asks them if they know of a place where she can stay.
    The animals lead her to the Cottage of the Seven Dwarfs, which she finds empty and dirty. Thinking that cleaning the house may
    persuade the owners to let her stay, Snow White and the animals clean
    the cottage and its contents while singing "Whistle While You Work". The
    seven dwarfs, meanwhile, are working in their mine, digging for
    diamonds. When it is time for them to go home for the day, they march
    through the forest, singing "Heigh-Ho".
    After cleaning the house, Snow White falls asleep on several of the dwarfs' beds. When the dwarfs
    see light coming from the cottage,
    they approach cautiously, thinking that a monster has taken up residence
    in their home. They search the ground floor of the house but are afraid
    to go upstairs. After an unsuccessful attempt by Dopey to chase the 'monster' down, all seven dwarfs venture upstairs to
    discover Snow White sleeping. She wakes up and befriends each one of
    them. They allow her to stay (though Grumpy is reluctant). Snow White remembers that she has left soup downstairs
    and rushes to prepare it, ordering the dwarfs to wash while they wait.
    The dwarfs proceed outside to a trough, where all but Grumpy wash
    themselves; the six other dwarfs later wash Grumpy, dumping him into the
    trough when supper is ready.

    That evening, the Queen once again consults her Magic Mirror, who tells her
    that Snow White still lives and that the Huntsman had given
    her a pig's heart. Furious at being tricked and the Huntsman's betrayal,
    the Queen descends a spiral staircase, entering her dungeon, where she
    resolves to do away with the princess herself. She uses a potion to
    transform herself into a witch-like peddler - a disguise to deceive Snow
    White. She then decides to use a Poisoned Apple to send Snow White into
    the Sleeping Death (a magically-induced coma). At the cottage, the
    dwarfs perform "The Silly Song", with Snow White singing and dancing
    along with them. She then sings "Some Day My Prince Will Come"
    (referring to her romance with the Prince) before sending them up to
    bed; however, the dwarfs decide to sleep downstairs, allowing Snow White
    to sleep in their beds, where she, looking towards the window, says
    thankful prayers about her and the dwarfs' protection, and wishes for Grumpy to
    like her more. Meanwhile, the Queen prepares the poisoned apple and,
    dismissing the possibility that Snow White may be revived by 'love's
    first kiss' (the only cure for the Sleeping Death), gleefully proclaims
    that Snow White will appear dead and be 'buried alive'. She leaves the
    castle and makes her way to the dwarfs' cottage, kicking the skeleton of
    a long-deceased prisoner on the way out.

    As the dwarfs leave to the mine in the morning, Snow White kisses each
    dwarf on the forehead, though Grumpy initially resists. He warns
    her not to let any strangers into the house. After the dwarfs have left
    the cottage, the Queen in disguise goes to Snow White and offers her the
    poisoned apple, which Snow White is about to accept until the forest
    animals, sensing danger from the vultures, try to attack her. This
    causes Snow White to take pity on the old woman and takes her into the
    cottage. The animals then rush to the mine and try to tell the dwarfs of
    the danger. The dwarfs eventually realize what is happening, thanks to
    Sleepy, and, led by Grumpy, hurry back to the cottage with the animals.
    The Queen persuades Snow White to take a bite from the apple by telling
    her that it is a 'wishing apple', which will make any wish of hers come
    true; after biting the fruit, the princess falls into the Sleeping
    Death, as the Queen cackles in triumph. The dwarfs arrive and chase the
    Queen, eventually cornering her up a cliff, where she attempts to crush
    them with a boulder, but is sent over the cliff by a bolt of lightning,
    crushed by the boulder herself, and eventually devoured (off-screen) by
    the vultures that were following her.

    The dwarfs and animals mourn a seemingly dead Snow White. Although the
    other dwarfs are silent, Grumpy sobs at how he mistreated
    her, and Dopey sobs, being the dwarf who loved her most of all. Unable
    to find it in their hearts to bury her, they place her into a glass
    coffin in a peaceful glade in the forest. The Prince arrives and, after
    singing a reprise of One Song, kisses Snow White, which breaks the spell. Awakened, she bids farewell
    to the dwarfs and animals, and rides into the sunset with the Prince to
    live happily ever after.
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    director utt utthichi kbinlkrn t ketrt univerity.

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